9th Class Notes

Pakistan Studies Notes

Ideology

Meaning of Ideology

The word “Ideology is French in origin. It is made up of two components namely ‘idea’ and ‘logos’. Ida means concept and logo means studies.

Definition of of Ideology

A collection of beliefs, values, customs, aims, traditions, rituals which is common to all members of a society and its is expressed in the lives of all members of that society is called “Ideology”.

Explanation of Ideology

Ideology is generally used in wider perspective because human beings have unique way of thinking. It constitutes a system of human life whose integral parts are assertion, theories and objectives of human life. In a society the individuals have common beliefs, customs, traditions and rituals.

Importance of Ideology in Practical Life

There is a great importance of ideology in practical life. It gives common thinking and traditions to the people; hence unity is established among them. Thus a common culture is developed in the society due to this particular characteristics of that society are appeared which give it a separate identity in the world. The significance of ideology in practical life can be explained as follows:

An ideology expresses the ideas and thoughts of all individuals in a society.

It can unite the people on a platform on the basis of common ideas and traditions.

It determines the clear principles about the ‘mode of life’, due to this an effective force is developed among people. So they participate in the practical struggle of life.

It produces self consciousness and prudence among people due to this they become fully aware about basic objectives of a society.

It helps in fixing the freedom, culture and traditions among the people of a society.

It explains religious teachings and social values more clearly which help to understand the characteristics of that society.

All individuals spend purposeful and civilized lives due to an ideology.

 

 

 

Islamic Ideology

Definition of Islamic Ideology

An ideology which enlightens the Islamic teachings, the teachings of Quran and Sunnah, Islamic mode of life and culture is known as Islamic Ideology.
Explanation

Islam is a complete mode of life and Islamic ideology is established on the basis of golden principles of Islam. It helps in gaining peace and comfort in life. It teaches us the basic principles for the individual and collective welfare of mankind.
Characteristics of Islamic Ideology

The following are the important characteristics of Islamic Ideology:
1. Islamic ideology helps the people to spend their lives according to the teachings of Quran and Sunnah.
2. It provides a complete picture of Islamic way of life and traditions.
3. It helps in the construction of Islamic society according to the commands of Allah.
4. It helps in establishing the basic principles like human respect, tolerance, justice and equality, fraternity and mutual co-operation.

Sources of Islamic Ideology

There are following sources of Islamic Ideology:
1. The Holy Quran
2. Sunnah
3. Traditions and Cultural Values

The Holy Quran

It is the book of guidance which was revealed on the last prophet Hazrat Mohammad (Peace be upon him). The Holy Quran is the permanent basis of Islam. It provides detailed guidance to the people, concerning social and economic laws, leading to a sustainable, peaceful and purposeful life at the individual and collective levels.

Sunnah of the Prophet (P.B.U.H)

The second important source of Islamic Ideology is the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (Peace be Upon Him). Our holy prophet (P.B.U.H) elaborated the injunctons of Islam by his words and deeds. The detailed explanation of the teachings of the Holy Quran is found in Sunnah.

Traditions and Cultural Values

The third important source of Islamic ideology is traditions and culture. It is the way of passing life in which such a balanced life is adopted which makes the life peaceful and comfortable and peace is also established in the collective life of the society. The values and traditions, which do not run opposite to the teachings of Islam are allowed to be followed by the Muslims in their respective regions.

 

 

 

Ideology and National Character

Introduction

Character is the sum of total habits, attitudes and the way of living an individual. The character of a person is influenced by the ideology. Thus if an ideology produces the uniformity of thoughts, then the habits, traditions and way of life of the whole nation become same which is collectively known as national character. There is a great importance of national character in success and stability of an ideology. The national character is formed from the following moral and ethical values in the light of an ideology.

  1. Firm Faith
    2. Devotion
    3. Honesty and Probity
    4. Patriotism
    5. Labour and Hard work
    6. National Interest
  2. Firm Faith

It is necessary that one should make firm faith on ideology for the determination of national character. This gives help to a person in the selection of a way for action. The firm faith of the Muslim of South Asia on Pakistan Ideology helped them to achieve Pakistan for them.

  1. Devotion

A uniformity of thoughts and actions should be developed among all the members of a nation. They should devote themselves with the sense of great spirit and duty.

  1. Honesty and Probity

These qualities make a person practical and the practical persons can extend an ideology practically. An individual should lea a just life and reflect honesty in words and deeds. Islam has emphasized upon honesty and probity in very strong words.

  1. Patriotism

An expression of the love and sacrifice for country is called patriotism. Patriotism gives stability to an ideology. It also establishes the national character. For instance, Pakistanis showed a gret spirit of patriotism during the war against India in 1965. It was the expression of their national character.

  1. Labour and Hard work

The spirit o labour and hard work is a symbol of national character. It becomes the identity of the nations in the world. The secret of the success of nations is hidden in the labour and hard work.

  1. National Interest

The collective objectives which help in progressing a country and nation are called national interest. It is necessary for an individual to reflect the supremacy of national interest with his personal character. Only those nations survive whose individuals not compromise on the national interest.

 

 

 

 

Democracy

Definition of Democracy

“Type of government in which, the representatives for the government are selected by the votes of common people and all the members of the state take part directly or indirectly in the formation of the government is called Democracy.”
Principles of Democracy in Islam

Islam has a different concept of Democracy from the rest of the world. Under Islamic democracy, the states of affairs are run according to the teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah. The foundation of democracy in Islam has been established on the basis of following principles:

  1. Sovereignty

Under Islamic democracy, the sovereignty belongs ot Almighty Allah. God fearing persons to run the affairs of the state are desirable to elect as the premiers of the state. The government as well as the legislative assemblies does not enjoy the unlimited powers. However the people are at liberty to elect.

  1. Justice

The literal meaning of justice is to keep the rights things at their right places. It is the foundation of divine law. No aspect of life can be complete without justice. It is the justice which makes any society peaceful and prosperous. The individual and collective lives are made effective due to the establishment of justice.

  1. Equality

Equality means all the persons are treated under the same principles of the state. Islam rejects all kinds of discrimination on the basis of languages, caste, colour, culture, wealth or poverty. The Holy prophet (P.B.U.H) in his last pilgrimage declared that all human beings are the off-springs of Hazrat Adam. No Arab has any precedence over a Non-Arab and vice versa.

  1. Fraternity

Fraternity means brotherhood. Allah has told in the Holy Quran that all the believers are brothers to each other. The principles of fraternity are an important aspect of Islamic society. As brothers all the Muslims share the problems of each other and their happiness also. Our holy prophet (P.B.U.H) said that a Muslim is a brother to another. Mutual co-operation is developed due to the establishment of fraternity in the society.

  1. Tolerance

Tolerance means is the power of endurance and to accept the criticism of the others merrily. Tolerance makes the mutual relations of human beings strong. The holy prophet (P.B.U.H) preached tolerance through his words and deeds. Tolerance gives an ability to every person to neglect the mistakes of the others thus the possibilities of quarreling with each other are discriminated and a state of peace is developed in the society.

 

 

 

 

Ideology of Pakistan in the Light of Quaid-e-Azam’s Sayings

Introduction

Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah gave practical shape to the ideology given by Allama Iqbal.

After joining Muslim League in 1913, he continued with his efforts to bring about Hindu Muslim unity but he was greatly disappointed to see the prejudicial attitude of the Congress and Hindus towards the Muslims. Following are some extracts from the speeches and statements which he delivered from time to time for explaining the ideology of Pakistan.

Address At Second Round Table Conference in 1931

Quaid-e-Azam believed that Congress and Hindus would never recognize the rights of Muslims. He declared while representing the Muslims in the second Round Table Conference in 1913:

 

“The Hindu Muslim dispute must be settled before the enforcement of any system or constitution. Until you do not give guarantee for the safeguard of the Muslim interests, until you do not win their (Muslims) co-operations, any constitution you enforece shall not last for even 24 hours.”

Quaid-e-Azam and Two Nation Theory

Quaid-e-Azam was a firm advocate of two nation theory which became the ideological basis of Pakistan. He said:
“The Muslims are a nation by every right to establish their separate homeland. They can adopt any means to promote and protect their economic social, political and cultural interests.”

 

On 23rd March, 1940 at the historic session of the Muslim League at Lahore, he said:

 

“The Mussalmans are not a minority. They are a nation by any definition. By all canons of International law we are a nation.”

 

In his presidential address at the annual session of Muslim League at Lahore in 1940. He said:

 

“India is not a nation, nor a country. It is a Sub Continent of nationalities. Hindus and Muslims being the two major nations. The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry nor inter dine and they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspects on life and of are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history.”

 

On March 8, 1944 while addressing the students of Muslim University, he said:

 

“Hindus and Muslims through living in the same town and villages had never been blended into one nation. They were always two separate entities.”

Quaid-e-Azam and Millat-e-Islamia

He believed that only Islam was the unifying force of the Muslim Millat. He said:

 

“What relationships knits the Muslims into one whole, which is the formidable rock on which the Muslim edifice has been erected, which is the sheet anchor providing base to the Muslim Millat, the relationship, the sheet anchor and the rock is Holy Quran.”

Address At Islamia College Peshawar

In 1946, at Islamia College Quaid-e-Azam declared:

 

 “We do not demand Pakistan simply to have a piece of land but we want a laboratory where we could experiment on Islamic principles.”

Address on 18th June 1945

In his message to the Frontier Muslim Students Federation, he said:

 

“Pakistan not only means freedom and independence but Muslim ideology, which has to be preserved which came to us as a precious gift and treasure and which we hope, other will share with us.”

Conclusion

The above sayings and statements largely prove that Quaid-e-Azam wanted to establish an Islamic system as a code of life because he believed that it was the sole objective of the Pakistan Movement

 

 

 

 

Ideology of Pakistan

Introduction

Pakistan is an ideological state and the ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic Ideology. Its basic principles being:

 

“The only Sovereign is Allah.”

 

Ideology of Pakistan basically means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to the faith and creed based on the Islamic principles. Quaid-e-Azam once said:

 

“Pakistan was created the day the first Indian national entered the field of Islam.”

 

From the above statement, it is clear that ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic one.

Two Nation Concepts

The fundamental concept of ideology is that Muslims should get a separate identity. They should have a separate state where they could live according to Islamic rules and principle. On one occasion Quaid-e-Azam said:

 

“The Muslims demand Pakistan where they can rule in accordance with their own system of life, their culture development, their traditions and Islamic laws.”

 

Thus, this fundamental concept of ideology led to the concept of two nations in the Sub Continent and resulted in the formation of Pakistan.

Factors Creating the Idea of Separate Homeland

Factors creating the idea of a separate homeland were as follows:

  1. Anti Muslim Campaign

The Hindus and British joined hands to destroy the faith, belief, customs and national importance of Muslims because Muslim rebellion was creating much problem for both.

  1. In Acceptance of British Rule

Muslims had been ruling the Sub-Continent for ages. Therefore, they could not resist any power over them. When British came to rule the Sub Continent, Muslims were the only nation who opposed them. Thus, in order to gain power, British had to crush the Muslims collectively.

  1. Hindus Betrayed Muslims

In the beginning, Hindus appeared to be on Muslim’s side, but later on their hostility was exposed as they opposed various steps taken by British Government which purely benefited Muslims.

  1. Refusal of Muslim Identity

British wanted to implement parliamentary system in Sub-Continent in which the majority was the power and authority. due to Hindu majority it was probable that if British left India undivided, it would fall under the Hindus Rule. Further more, Hindus did not accept the separate identity of Muslims and thus, there were no chances of freedom even after the British rule.

  1. War of 1857

In 1857, Muslims and Hindus tried to expel the British out of India but failed. Later due to Hindu conspiracies, Muslims were held responsible for it and hence were crushed further by British.

  1. Sir Syed’s Idea

Sir Syed for the first time put down the idea that Muslims are a separate nation. He convinced Muslims to unite themselves in order to have a separate social and political identity.

Basic Points of Ideology of Pakistan

Muslims are different from Hindus in every aspect, their culture, civilization, customs and religion all

are entirely different.
The Muslims need a free state for protection of their separate where they can live in accordance with their faith, belief and follow the Islamic codes.

Importance of Ideology in National Life

Ideology is a motivating force for a nation, which is striving hard to bring stability and homogeneity to its nation hood. It provides the binding force to the scattered groups in a society and brings them close to each other on a common platform. Ideologies impel their adherence to follow a joint linked action for the accomplishment of their goal. Ideologies give shape to the revolutions and create new cultures and civilizations. They stress on their adherents to insist on the realization of their ideal through total transformation of society.
An urgent agreement with each other on the ideals is most vital pre-requisite of an ideology.

Conclusion

The fundamental concept of the ideology of Pakistan is that Muslims are a separate nation having their own culture, literature, religion and way of life. They cannot be merged in any other nation. They should be able to develop their culture and religious traditions in an Islamic State and they should be able to create a true Islamic society for themselves.

Thus the ideology of Pakistan which developed through the period of Mohammad Bin Qasim and others and followed by political leaders like Quaid-e-Azam was materialized in 1947.

 

 

 

 

Short Question and Answers (Resources of Pakistan)

Q.1 Define Ideology?

Ans. It is a system of Ideas concerning social and political life. or It may also be defined as, a product of great minds or its is the result of Devine guidance.

Q.2 What is an Islamic Ideology?

Ans. It is an ideology through a society is formed in accordance with the teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah.

Q.3 Write any four guiding principles of Islamic way of life?

Ans. The four important guiding Islamic principles are :
1. Unity of Allah: It means the belief in oneness of Allah. It is the basic belief in Islam.
2. Prophet Hood: Finality of the prophet hood of Hazrat Mohammad (P.B.U.H).
3. Life Hereafter: It means all the mankind will be reborn after death. They wil be rewarded or punished according to their deeds in the worldly life.
4. Fundamentals of Islam: It includes Kalma, Salat, Fasting, Hajj and Zakaat.

Q.4 What are the contents of ideology?

Ans. The contents of Ideology are:
1. Common religion: It means that people following a common religion form a common ideology.
2. Common Culture: The people of a country adopt a particular culture, people of a country are recognized by their culture.
3. Common Causes: Every nation has its national objects. So it builds an ideology in accordance to its needs.
4. Dedication and Devotion: The people of a nation should work with dedication and devotion for the betterment of their country.

Q.5 Write down the sources of Islamic Ideology?

Ans. The sources of Islamic Ideology are the Holy Quran and Sunnah.

Q.6 Write the importance of Ideology.

Ans. Ideology is important due to the following reasons:
1. It is a source for achieving the national progress and prosperity.
2. It unites the people.
3. It is a motivating force for deeds and actions.
4. It determine the way of living of the people.

Q.7 Write down any four benefits of Salat?

Ans. Salat has the following advantages:
1. It is a pillar of Islam.
2. It prohibits the evil or satanic deeds.
3. It brings Islamic unity.
4. It is a basic difference between an infided and a Muslim.

Q.8 Write down any four benefits of Zakat?

Ans. Following are the four benefits of Zakat:
1. It is a principal worship to achieve Allah’s pleasure.
2. It reduces the gap between rich and poor.
3. It kills the element of greediness.
4. It is a remedy for selfishness.

Q.9 Write down four sentences on the importance of Hajj?

Ans. Importance of Hajj is depicted in following sentences:
1. It is obligatory on every Muslim once in his life.
2. It creates brotherhood among the Muslims.
3. It shows the strength of the Muslims.
4. It is both principal and physical worship.

Q.10 Write the Islamic principles of Democracy?

Ans. They are as follows:
1. Sovereignty
2. Justice
3. Equality
4. Fraternity
5. Tolerance

 

 

 

 

Fill in the Blanks

  1. Ideology is a Frenchword.

    2. Ideologyis a product of great and influential minds or divine guidance.

    3. Unicty of Allah is the basic element of Islamic Ideology.

    4. Allah has the sovereignty in Islamic State.

    5. Zakat is a financial worship.

    6. Hajj is obligatory on every Muslim once in life time.

    7. Fraternity means brotherhood. 8. Islam has a complete code of conduct.

    9. Common religion and common culture are the contents of ideology.

    10. Fraternity and tolerance are the principles of Islamic Society.

    11. Equality, faith and culture are the characteristics of Islamics society.

    12. The sources of Islamic Society are the Holy Quran and Sunnah.

    13. Allama Iqbal presented the idea of separate Muslim state on 30 December 1930, at Allahabad.

    14. Lahore resolution was later named as Pakistan Resolution.

    15. Justice is the arrangement of things at their correct place.

 

 

 

 

Faraizi Movement

 

Introduction

Faraizi movement was founded by Haji Shariat Ullah. he was o the view that Muslims should give up un-Islamic customs.
He emphasized that Muslims should act upon Faraiz only i.e. prayer (Namaz), Fasting (Roza), Hajj and Zakaat. Hence his movement came to be known as Faraizi Movement. After the death of Haji Shariat Ullah his son Mohammad Mohsin organized the movement in which a systematic way that it became stronger and popular. It proved to be a public movement.

Solution of Some Other Problems

The Faraizi Movement also paid full attention to the problems faced by the peasant. They became so courageous that they refused to bend before the threatening force of landlords.

 

 

 

Role of Shah Waliullah in the Freedom Movement

 

Introduction

The efforts of Shah Waliullah for the spread of Islam were the first step towards the establishment of free Islamic Society as well as the establishment of Pakistan.

Early Education

Shah Waliullah was a great saint, scholar and reformer. He was born in a pious family in Delhi on 21st February 1703. His father’s name was Shah Abdul Rahim. Shah Abdul Rahim was the founding member of the Madrasa Rahimiya in Delhi. Shah Waliullah received his early education in Madrassa Rahimiya.

As A Teacher

After finishing his education at the Madrassa Shah Waliullah taught there for twelve years. He then went to Saudi Arabia in 1724 for Hajj and higher studies. He returned to Delhi in July 1732.

Preaching of Islam

He advocated the Quranic education for the welfare of the Muslims of subcontinent. He urged the people to live simple life. Shah Waliullah recognized that the tenets of Islam could not be followed properly unless the Holy Quran itself was understood. In order to spread teachings of Islam, he translated the Holy Quran into Persian. His work was appreciated. Later on his sons, Shah Abdul Qadir and Shah Abdul Aziz translated the Holy Quran in Urdu.

Role in Politics

Shah Waliullah led the Muslims to struggle for their political rights. He wrote many letters to the great Afghan ruler Ahmed Shah Abdali to retrieve Muslim rule in India. Shah Waliullah clarified the importance of “Jihad” to the soldiers. He knew that the Sikhs, Marhattas and the Jats were the enemies of the Muslims. So he urged the Muslims to strive for Allah because they had already suffered a lot by fighting with one another.

Author of Many Books

Shah Waliullah was the writer of many books which are as follows:
1. Hajjatullah-ul-Balighah
2. Izalat-Al-Akhfa
3. The explanation of the Holy Quran

Two Nation Theory

Shah Waliullah played a vital role in establishing the personality and identity of Muslims. He said that the Muslims are one nation according to Kalma and belief and there is no importance of their colour and any geographical existence.

 

 

 

Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barelvi

Introduction

Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi was born in 29 November 1786 in Rai Bareilley. He moved to Delhi at the age of eighteen and became the follower of Shah Abdul Aziz. He received the necessary education during his stay at Delhi. In 1812 he joined the army of Nawab Ameer Khan Tonak in order to take part in Jihad against the British. In 1821, he went to perform Hajj but stayed there for two years where he met with the great thinkers of Islam and got knowledge about the movements of Islam in the world. He became greatly impressed from this new system of thought for Islam. When he came back on 6 August 1823 to India, he devoted himself for the religious and social reformation of the Muslims and the preparation of Jihad. He received martyrdom in fighting with Sikhs on 6th May 1831.

The Mujahideen Movement

Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi started a great movement in the North of India; this movement is known as “The Mujahideen Movement” or “The Movement o Jihad”. This movement arranged a power for the struggle of freedom in Muslims which produced a spirit of survival and they started freedom struggle.

Background of the Mujahideen Movement

Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi selected a particular way on the command of his spiritual guide Shah Abdul Aziz and devoted himself in the preparation of the holy war. He started a national movement for this purpose in 1818 and organized this movement after is arrival from Hajj as the Mujahideen Movement in 1831.

Objectives of Mujahideen Movement

He wanted to make the Muslims as the true lover of Islam, for this purpose he started the Mujahideen Movement.
The main objectives of the Mujahideen Movement were following;

To preach unicity of Almighty Allah.

To revive the teachings of Islam and prepare the Muslims to pass their lives simply according to the teachings of Islam.

To protect the Muslims against such acts and ideas which are contrary to Islamic values.

To protect the Muslims from the worship of other things except Allah.

To preach Jihad because it was not possible to get freedom from evil force without armed struggle.

Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi wanted to eliminate the domination of Sikhs in Punjab and N.W.F.P to revive Islamic values and traditions.
He started Jihad in the Punjab and N.W.F.P. Shah Ismail Shaheed along with six thousand followers also joined Syed Ahmed in his Jihad against evil forces. Syed Ahmed toured different areas around Delhi and Punjab, where number of his followers joined him.

Struggle of Mujahideen Movement

The Mujahideen Movement was started against the Sikhs. He came to Sindh in 1826 and sought to help Syed Sibghatullah Shah Pir Pagara. Syed Sibghatullah Shah Pir Pagara sent a strong contingent of this staunch followers called “Hurs”. Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi left his family under the protection of Pir Pagara and proceeded towards Jihad without any worry about his family. Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi reached Nowshehra after passing though Afghanistan, the Khyber Pass and Peshawar in December 1826 and made it his headquarter. The first battle against hte Sikhs was fought on December 21, 1826 near Akora. The Sikhs were defeated. The second battle was fought at Hazro. It was also won by the Muslims. These victories inspired a number of Pathan tribes to join Jihad Movement. The number of Mujahideen rose to 80,000. Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi was given the status of “Amir-ul-Momineen”. Islamic laws were enforced in the area which was controlled by Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi.

The movement of the Holy war was initially very successful but soon conspiracies began against Syed Ahmed, Maharaja Ranjid Singh (1780-1839) bribed Sardar yar Mohammad and his brother Sultan Mohammad Khan to plot against the Khilafat of Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi. The disloyalty of the tribal leaders disheartened him. He made Balakot as is new headquarter. He started his struggle from Muzaffarabad. Here a tough fight started between the Mujahideen and the Sikhs. The Muslims fought with heroism but Syed Ahmed and his right hand companions were martyred on 6th May1831. In short, the Mujahideen movement of Syed Ahmed failed in Balakot, but this movement kindled a flame of freedom in sub-continent. The political work of Syed Ahmed Brelvi was carried on later by Willayat Ali of Patna. When the British captured the Punjab then a battle was fought again against the British. Thus the Jihad movement of Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi was ended after several wars like this for independence

 

 

 

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

Early Education

He was born in Delhi on 17th October 1817. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a great reformer. He belonged to a prominent family of the city. After completing his formal education, he entered service with the British East India Company in 1839. He rose to the position of judge in 1846 and later on he was transferred to Banglore as the Chief Judge.

The First Task

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan began his first task to soften British hostility towards the Muslims of subcontinent. He wrote a book “Essay on the causes of the India Revolt” on the war of independence. This book was sent to British Members of the parliament and was circulated among British officials.

Educational Services

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan knew that the Muslims could not achieve this goal without education. He set up a Persian school at Muradabad in 1859. This school was upgraded to the college in 1875. This college was upgraded to the college and the university level after his death. The educated Muslims of the early twentieth century were the product of this institution.

Political Services

He urged the Muslims to acquire knowledge first and then they should take part in the politics of the subcontinent. After the war of independence, his position was not less than that of a great political reformer for Muslims.

Aligarh Movement

Aligarh Movement had the following objects:
1. To build confidence between the British and the Muslims.
2. To persuade the Muslims to get scientific knowledge and learn English language.
3. To hold back the Muslims from the collective politics.

Effects of Aligarh Movement

His main focus was on Aligarh to achieve his goals. he estabished Mohammad an Anglo Oriental School. It was a symbol of a broad movement affecting every phase of Muslim life. The actions taken by Sir syed Ahmed Khan for the educational uplift of the Muslims left a far-reaching impact on the political, social, economic and religious aspects of the Muslims. The Aligarh movement showed new ways to press and opened the doors of economic prosperity for the Muslims of the sub-continent.

Congress and Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

In 1883, Lord A.O.Hume formed an organization called Indian National Congress. The aim of this party was to provide a political platform for the Indians. Many Indians joined this party. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was an open minded and large hearted person. He was a great patriot, At first he considered all who lived in India as one nation and was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. He looked both Hindus and Muslims with the same eyes. He said,
“By the word “Nation”, I mean only Hindus and Muslims and nothing else. Our interests and problems are common and therefore, I consider the two factions as one nation.”
But unfortunately the attitude of Hindus and Congress compelled him to reconsider his ideas about one nation. He felt sorry to see that both Congress and Hindus looking against the interests of the Muslims. Congress ignored the Muslims totally. He failed to bring Hundus and Muslims closer a one single platform He saw that the Hindus never come forward with open mind and always adopted a policy to damage the Muslim cause, so Sir Syed Ahmed Khan advised the Muslims to keep themselves away from it. On 1st October 1906 Sir Agha Khan led a Muslim delegation and met the Viceroy Lord Minto at Simla to demand a separate electorate for Muslims in the coming reforms. The viceroy save a good response to them. There being no political party for Muslims at that time a strong need for it was felt. God Almightly enabled them to form Muslim League.

Urdu-Hindi Controversy

In 1867, Hindus demanded that Hindi should be made on official language of India in place of Urdu. They started an agitation. The Hindus were against Urdu because it was the language o the Muslims, Sir Syed felt sorry and he was now convinced that the Hindus would never be friend with the Muslims.

The Real Founder of Pakistan

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan saw the attitude of Hindus towards the Muslims and felt sorry for it. He declared,
“I am convinced now that Hindus and Muslims could never become one nation.”
Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations because their religion, culture, history and way of life are quite distinct from each other. In this way we can say this great hero and reformer, the real founder of Pakistan.
Sir Syed passed away on 27 March 1898 but his work was continued by Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk. Due to the Sir Syed’s efforts the Muslims emerged as a separate identity.

 

 

 

Two Nation Theory

Introduction

The Two Nation theory in its simplest way means the cultural, political, religious, economic and social dissimilarities between the two major communities, Hindus and Muslim of the Sub Continent. These differences of out look, in fact, were greatly instrumental in giving rise to two distinct political ideologies which were responsible for the partition of India into two independent states.

The Basis of the Creation of Pakistan

The Two Nation Theory was the basis of the struggle for creation of Pakistan which held that Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations. They in spite of living together for centuries could not forget their individual culture and civilization.
There are a few factors which split the inhabitants of the Sub Continent into two nations. Let us examine each of them separately.

Religious Differences

Islam preaches Tawheed (Oneness of Allah) and believes in equality of man before law. Muslims are the believers of God, the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), the Holy book Quran and hold a cohesive approach towards life.
Hinduism, on the other hand is based on the concept of multiple Gods. Their society follows a caste system and is divided into four classes and has a very narrow approach towards life.

Hindu Nationalism

The Hindu nationalist leaders totally ignored the great contribution made by the Muslims in the Indian society by way of promoting education and other social activities. Their writings and ideas flared up the communal discord between Hindus and Muslims to further pollute the political condition.

Cultural Differences

Muslim followed the Islamic culture, while Hindus inherited a self build culture. The Hindus burnt their dead bodies while Muslim burred them. Hindus considered the ‘Mother Cow’ as a sacred animal and worshiped it while Muslims slaughtered it. They performed ‘Sati’ while Muslims abhorred this tradition.

Social Differences

The two communities of the Sub-Continent differ in their social life as well as the clothes the foods, the household utensils, the layout of homes, the words of salutation, the gestures and every thing about them was different and immediately pointed to the distinctive origin.

Economic Differences

After 1857, the Muslim economic was crushed. The Muslims were thrown out of Government services and their estates and properties were confiscated, while the Hindus were provided with ample opportunities to progress economically.

Educational Differences

The Hindus had advanced in the educational field because they quickly and readily took to the English education. While Muslims did not receive modern education which heavily affected their economic conditions.

Political Differences

the political differences between the Hindus and Muslims have played an important role in the development and evolution of the Two Nation Theory.

Hindi Urdu Controversy

In 1867, the Hindus demanded that Urdu should be written in Hindi Script instead of Persian script. This created another gap between Hindus and Muslims.

Congress Attitude

The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885. It claimed to represent all communities of India but oppressed all Muslim ideas and supported the Hindus.

Partition of Bengal

In 1905, the partition of Bengal ensured a number of political benefits for the Muslims but the Hindus launched an agitation against the partition and partition was annulled in 1911.

Language

The Muslim and Hindus wrote and spoke two different languages. The Muslim spoke Urdu and it was written in Arabic Script. On the other hand, the Hindi language was spoken by Hindus and it was written in Sanskrit.

Sir Syed Ahmed – The Pioneer of Two Nation Theory

The entire freedom movement revolved around the two nation theory which was introduced by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. He considered all those lived in India as one nation and was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. Speaking at the meeting of nation and was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. Speaking at the meeting of nation and was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. Speaking at the meeting of Indian Association he said:
“I look to both Hindus and Muslims with the same eyes and consider them as my own eyes. By the word ‘Nation’ I mean only Hindus and Muslims and nothing else. We Hindus and Muslims live together on the same soil under the same government. Our interests and problems are common, and therefore, I consider the two factions as one nation.”

Two Nation Theory in the View of Allama Iqbal

Allama Iqbal was the first important figure who propounded the idea of separate homeland on the basis of two nation theory. In the annual session of Muslim League at Allahabad in 1930, he said:
“India is a continent of human beings belonging to different languages and professing different religions … I, therefore, demand the formation of consolidated Muslim state in the best interests of the Muslims of India and Islam.”

Quaid-e-Azam’s Statement on Two Nation Theory

He expounded the two nation’s theory in such detail that most Muslims and even some Hindus came to believe in its truth. He declared:
“Muslims are not a minority; they are one nation by every definition of the word nation. By all canons of international law we are a nation.”
Quaid-e-Azam reiterated that Hindus and Muslims could ever evolve a common nationality was an idle dream.
In 1973, he said:
“Hindustan is neither one country, nor its inhabitant’s one nation. This is sub continent which consists of many nations of which the Hindus and Muslims are two major nation.”

Conclusion

Two nation theory is the basis of the creation of Pakistan because without it Pakistan would not come into being on 14th August, 1947

 

 

 

 

Role of Baluchistan in the Freedom Movement

Introduction

According to area, Baluchistan is the is the biggest province of Pakistan. Quetta is capital of Baluchistan. Sui gas is found in Baluchistan. The people of this province are very courageous and brave. In the past, this province remained under-developed but today it is moving on the path of progress.

Historical Background

During British rule Baluchistan did not enjoy the status of province. It was deprived of political reforms. Due to this remained backward politically and economically. In 1927, Tavares-e-Delhi given by Muslim leaders and in 1929 in Quaid-e-Azam’s fourteen points, it was demanded that political reforms should also be introduced in Frontier and Baluchistan like other provinces.

Political Awakening

The process of political awakening in Baluchistan; started very late because its link with other parts of the country was very little. They were backward in education.

Organization of Muslim League

Muslim League was founded in Baluchistan in 1939. Qazi Mohammad is at the top of the list of people, which made Muslim League active in Baluchistan, Nawab Mohammad Khan Jogezai and Mir Jafar Jamali also served much. These leaders prepared the people here for making Pakistan both mentally and practically.

Favour for Pakistan Resolution

Baluchistan Muslim League favored Pakistan movement very much. The leaders held meeting here fro time to time and prepared the people mentally for Pakistan.

Active Part in Pakistan Movement

The people of Baluchistan took active part in Pakistan Movement. In April 1947 Pakistan Conference was held in Quetta in which Muslim League strongly demanded Pakistan as their independent state.

Joining Pakistan

On 3rd June 1947 it was declared that Balochi Shahi Jerga and Quetta municipal Committee would decide about the future of Baluchistan. Congress tried much to win the favour but failed due to the untiring efforts of Qazi Mohammad Esa, Nawab Mohammad Khan Jogezai, Mir Jaffer Khan Jamali and ohter leaders and workers of Muslim League Shahi Jerga, Balochi leaders and Municipal Committee decided in favour of Pakistan. In this way Baluchistan became the part of Pakistan

 

 

 

Role of Punjab in the Making of Pakistan

 

Introduction

Punjab is the largest province of Pakistan. Lahore is the capital of Punjab. Lahore is an historical city. Lahore has always been the centre of political activity. So this province is called elder brother. This province played an important role in the existence of Pakistan.

Strong Support for Pakistan

Punjab took active part in every political or non-political activity. In the same way in Pakistan Movement, Punjab played its important role.

Allam Iqbal

Allama Iqbal took part in practical politics and created the wave of freedom in the Muslims. He was the member of Provincial Council of Punjab. In 1930 he gave the sketch of separate homeland for the Muslims in his Allahabad session. That is why he is called the Painter of Pakistan. He gave very useful suggestions to Quaid-e-Azam and showed his complete confidence in his leadership. Quaid also respected Allama Iqbal. He said during Pakistan Movement, “If we succeeded in getting a separate homeland for the Muslims and at one side I am given the president-ship and at other side the books of Iqbal; I will select the books of Iqbal.” In 1931-1932 in London, Iqbal joined Round Table Conference so that the political problems of sub continent could be solved.

Maulana Zafer Ali Khan

Zafar Ali Khan also belonged to Punjab. He was a high rank generalist, national hero and a great poet. “Zamindar” was his famouse newspaper in Urdu. He founded “Majlis-e-Ahrar”. This party launched a movement against Kadiyanis. He stated the aims of Muslim League well by his pen and tongue when he joined it. In 1936 elections, he was elected as the Member of Assembly on Muslim League ticket and after this he remained on the front in the struggle for independence.

Iqbal said about Zafer Ali Khan:

“What work Mustafa Kamal Ataturk did for Turkey by his sword, Zafer did the same work for the Muslims by his pen.”

Chaudhry Rehmat Ali

Chaudhry Rehmat Ali who suggested this name for Pakistan in 1932 lived in Punjab. In those days he was studying in London. He made Muslims emotional by his pamphlet, “Now or Never”. He invented Pakistan by : P for Pakistan, A for Afghani, F for Frontier Province, K for Kashmir, S for Sindh and Tan for Baluchistan.

Pakistan Resolution

Muslim League slowly set its feet in Punjab. In the beginning some local and provincial political parties opposed Muslim League but later on, Muslim League became the most effective political party of Punjab under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam. On 23rd March 1940, there was held a meeting in Lahore in which Pakistan Resolution or Lahore Resolution was passed in which Pakistan as a separate homeland for the Muslims was demanded. Now-a-days Minar-e-Pakistan is standing at that place.

Lahore As the Heart of Pakistan

Quaid-e-Azam rightly said “Lahore is the heart of Pakistan.”

Effective Pakistan Movement

Muslim League became the most active emotional party in Punjab under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam. People from all groups of Punjab joined Pakistan Movement.

Muslim League in Punjab Assembly

Muslim League took part in 1945-46 elections on the basis of demand for Pakistan and won particular seats in the central assembly for Punjab. In provincial elections, Muslim League won 75 seats out of 86. After this four other members joined Muslim League. So Muslim League got 79 seats, in this way Muslim League became the biggest party in Punjab. But the English governor of Punjab, instead of offering the Muslims League to make government, offered the government to Congress and Unionists party by conspiracy. Because of this, government did not have the support of the people. Muslim League launched “No Confidence Movement” and as a result, it had to resign soon.

Wrong Division of Punjab

It was decided that the province of Punjab should be divided between India and Pakistan. For this purpose an English Judge Radcliff was appointed as president of Commission that by conspiracy with Mountbatten and Congress gave most fertile areas of Muslim majority to India and the population of those Muslim areas left their homes and had to migrate to Pakistan.

Disturbances and the Problem of Immigrants

When Hindus and Sikhs saw that sub-continent is being divided against their interest they started disturbances in some regions of Punjab in which thousands of Muslims were killed and injured. In this play of fire and blood, the Muslims of Punjab proved very courageous and welcomed the refugees coming from India and proved that the Muslims are brothers of each other in the hour of need

 

 

 

 

Role of Sindh in the Making of Pakistan

Introduction

Sindh is an important province of Pakistan. Karachi is situated in this province and its the biggest city of Pakistan. Karachi is the capital of Sindh and is called small or mini Pakistan. Sindh played very important role in the formation of Pakistan.

Historical Background

Sindh became the part of Muslim state firstly after the victory of Mohammad Bin Qasim. That is why it is called the gateway of Islam. During the rule of Mohammad Bin Qasim and his followers Sindh remained the province of Abbasi Caliphate for nearly three centuries. During this time, many great scholars were born there which made Sindh famous over the Islamic world, during the decline period of Abbas when local rulers got the control of Sindh. After this Sindh remained under the control of Sultans of Delhi and Mughal rulers. However, the government of Muslims remained there till the arrival of the British rule. Shah Abdul Latif Bhatai and Hazrat Sachal Surmast are the famous Sufi poets of Sindh.

Separation of Bombay from Sindh

During the rule of the English, Sindh was made a part of Bombay, due to which no attention given to the social and educational position of Sindh. In Quaid’s fourteen points the separation of Sindh from Bombay was demanded. In this way due to the continuous efforts of Muslim League Sindh was separated from Bombay in 1935. It was made a separate province of Muslim majority.

Home Land of Quaid

Quaid-e-Azam was born in Karachi. He completed his early education in Sindh Madrassa High School.

Pakistan Movement

The Muslims of Sindh took active part in Pakistan Movement. In 1938 the Provincial Muslim League of Sindh passed a resolution in which it was demanded that the provinces with Muslim majority should be given to Muslims. It was the first time that any branch of Muslim League passed a resolution of separate homeland.

Favour for Pakistan Resolution

On 23 March 1940, there was held a Muslim League Session in Lahore in which Pakistan Resolution was passed. The Muslim League leaders of Sindh supported the resolution very much. A prominent leader of Sindh, Sir Abdullah Haroon felt happy on this pattern that the demand of Sindh Muslim League made in 1938 became the demand of Muslim League on national level.

Pakistan Demand Committee

Quaid-e-Azam made a committee in Sindh province to speed up the struggle for Pakistan in which Sir Abdullah Haroom and many other leaders of Sindh were the members. By the efforts of these Muslim leaders the demand for Pakistan became more popular.

Muslim League Ministry

Muslim League in 1943 became so popular in Sindh that it established its own ministry. In this way Sindh was the first province in the sub continent where the Muslim League established its ministry. In December 1943, Sindh Provincial Assembly once again became more superir to other provinces by passing resolution in favour of Pakistan.
Success of Muslim League in Elections 1946

After the provincial elections in February 1946 the leader of the Muslim League, Sir Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah established ministry under leadership. But this assembly was dissolved due to the conspiracies of Congress and new elections were held in 1946 in which Muslim League won all the seats and established its ministry again.

Entry in Pakistan

According to the plan of division of sub-continent on 3rd June, 1947 there was held a meeting of Sindh Provincial Assembly which decided to join Pakistan by the favour of majority

 

 

 

 

Motives and Objectives of Muslim League

Introduction

The important motives and objectives of Muslim League are as under:
1. To safe guard and protect Muslim interests and to convey their demands to British Government.
2. To create a feeling of respect and good will in Muslims for the British Government.
3. To promote brotherhood between different nationals of India.

Role of Muslim League

The role played by All India Muslim League in the creation of Pakistan is summarized under:

Minto-Morley Reform Act – 1909

The Muslims under the able leadership of Muslim League now began to press for the separate electroate for the Muslims. The authorities accepted their demand in an Act, called “The Minto-Morley Reform Act”, 1909.

Lucknow Pact – 1916

In November 1916, two committees of League and Congress met at Calcutta and drew and agreement draft of political reform for India called “Lucknow Pact.” Through this pact the Congress recognized the separate status of Muslims.

Simon Commission

In 1927, Simon Commission was sent to India under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon to settle Muslim Hindu differences. It was rejected because there was no Indian member on the commission.

Jinnah’s Fourteen Points – 1929

The Quaid-e-Azam refused to accept the nehru – report. He prepared a draft of guiding principles consisting of 14 points, popularly known as “Jinnah’s Fourteen Points.”

Allama Iqbal’s Allahabad Address – 1930

In 1930, in his presidential address at annual session of League at Allahabad, Iqbal proposed the formation of a separate Muslim State by combining Northern and South-Western Muslim majority region in Sub Continent.

Day of Deliverance

On 22nd December, Muslim League observed “Deliverance Day” to thank for Allah for resignation of Congress Ministers.

Pakistan Resolution – 1940

The attitude of the Hindus made it clear that the Hindus and the Muslims were two separate nations. On March, 23rd, at the annual session of the Muslim League at Lahore, the famous resolution, commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution was passed. It was presented by Maulvi Fazlul Haq.

Cripps Mission – 1942

Sir Stafford Cripps was sent by the British Government to India, to discuss with Indian leaders, the future Indian Constitution. His proposal was rejected by both the Congress and the League. The Congress characterized them as “a post-dated check on a failing bank.” Jinnah said that:
“If these were accepted “Muslims would become a minority in their majority provinces as well”.

Gandhi Jinnah Talks – 1944

Gandhi held talks with Jinnah to discuss about the future of India, but no fruitful results came out of it because Gandhi did not accept Muslims as a separate nation.

Simla Conference – 1945

Lord Wavell called a conference at Simla. The conference failed to achieve any purpose due to one sided attitude of Lord Wavell. In this conference, Quaid-e-Azam made it crystal clear that the (7) Muslims League can represent Muslims of India.

General Elections – 1945-1946

Elections for the central and provincial assemblies were held in 1945-1946 in which Muslim League won 30 seats of central legislative meant for Muslim and 430 seats out of 495 in the provincial legislative.

Cabinet Mission – 1946

Cabinet Mission visited India in 1946 and submitted its recommendations to the Britishers. As a result Interim Government was formed but Congress and League couldn’t cooperate amongst them.

Delhi Convention – 1946

Quaid-e-Azam called a convention of all the Muslim League Members at Delhi. At the convention every membter took the pledge to under go any danger for the attainment of national goal of Pakistan.

3rd June Plan – 1947

Lord Mount Batten prepared the plan for transference of power according to the wish of people. He emphasized on the partition of the country and told that it was the only solution of the Indian political deadlock. Both League and Congress accepted the plan.

Conclusion

Muslims League thus got its object and Pakistan was created on 14th August 1947. In short we can say that the creation of Pakistan is the result of the ceaseless efforts of the Muslim League and the great heroes which dedicated their lives for the creation of Pakistan. If there were be no Muslim League the fate of the Muslims of the Sub Continent could not be changed.

 

 

 

 

Fourteen Points of Quaid-e-Azam

Introduction

In March 1929, at the annual session of All India Muslim League, Quaid-e-Azam declared his famous fourteen points.

Federal System

The form of the future constitution should be federal with the residuary powers rested in the provinces.

Provincial Autonomy

A uniform measure of autonomy shall be granted to all provinces.

Representation of Minorities

All legislative in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on the definite principles of adequate and effective representation of minorities in every province without reducing the majority in any province to a minority or even equality.

Number of Muslim Representatives

In the central legislative, Muslims representatives shall be not less than one-third.

Separate Electorates

Representative of communal groups shall continue to be by means of separate electorates as at present provided it shall be open to any community, at any time, to abandon its separate electorate in favour of joint electorate.

Muslim Majority Provinces

Any territorial re-distribution that might at any time be necessary shall not in any way affects the Muslim majority in Punjab, Bengal and N.W.F.P.

Religious Liberty

Full religious liberty, liberty of belief, worship and observance, association and education shall be guaranteed to all the communication.

Three-Fourth Representation

No bill or resolution shall be passed in any legislative or any other elected body if three-fourths of the members of any community in that particular body oppose such a bill.

Separation of Sindh

Sindh should be separated from Bombay Presidency.

Introduction of Reforms in N.W.F.P and Baluchistan

Reforms should be introduced in the Noth West Frontier Province and Baluchistan on the same footing as in other provinces.

Government Services

Muslims should be given adequate share along with ohter Indians in the services of State.

Protection of Muslim’s Culture and Language

The constitution should embody adequate safeguard for the protection of Muslim culture, language, religion and civilization.

One-Third Muslim Ministries

No Cabinet, either central or provincial is formed. Without being a proportion of atleast one third Muslim Ministers.

Conclusion

No change shall be made in the constitution of State except with the concurrence of State constituting the Indian Federation. The reasonable and moderate demands, contained in the fourteen points, were rejected by the Hindus leaders which considerably widened the gulf between the two communities.
Importance of Jinnah’s Fourteen Points
A comparison of the Nehru Report with the Quaid-e-Azam’s fourteen points shows that the political gap between the Muslims and the Hindus had really widened. Fourteen points of Quaid-e-Azam became principles for the Muslims of India. The importance of these points can be judged by the fact that these points were presented in the Round Table Conference of 1930. As a result, these points became the demands of the Muslims and greatly influenced the Muslims thinking for the next two decades till the establishment of Pakistan in 1947.

 

 

 

Role of N.W.F.P in the Establishment of Pakistan

Introduction

North West Frontier Province is an important province of Pakistan. Its capital is Peshawar. Famous Khyber Pass is situated in this province. Foreign invaders entered sub-continent through this pass. It is an historical passage. Khushal Khan Khattak and Rehman Baba are the most famous poets of this province.

Facing Difficulties

Frontier is the province of Muslim majority. But Muslim League had to face many difficulties and problems while establishing it here. This difficulty was due to the leaders that were under the influence of Congress and they favoured its policies. Among such leaders Sarhadi Gandhi Abdul Ghaffar Khan was at the top of the list. In this province, Congress had the ministry that opposed the movement of Muslim League.

Organization of Muslim League

Muslim League slowly made its strong hold there under the leadership of the Quaid. Muslim League began to become popular in Frontier after passing Pakistan Resolution in 1940. Muslims of this area began to join Muslim League. Congress in this province started making false cases against the Muslim Leaders to torture them and locked them in jails. But they did not lose their courage. The struggle of Muslim League after 1945 became active. Among the leaders which contributed a lot are Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan, Peer Sahib Zakori Sharif and Peer Sahib Manki Sharif.

Demand for Pakistan

In February, 1947 Muslim League started the Non Co-Operative Movement against the Congress. Provincial Government gave hard tortures to Muslim League workers but it could not stop the Muslim League movement. Instead, it began to spread in the whole province. Provincial government began to be hated everywhere in the province and meetings of Muslim League began to be held in favour of separate homeland. In his way it was proved that the people of Muslim League were in the favour of Pakistan.

Conflict between Muslim League and Congress

On 3rd June, 1947 British government accepted the demand of Pakistan and declared that the future of Frontier will be decided by vote. So the Muslims stopped Non-Cooperation Movement. Muslim started convincing the people to give vote for Pakistan. On the other hand Congress started movement against Pakistan and raised a slogan of Free Baluchistan.

Joining Pakistan

The people of Frontier voted in favour of Pakistan in a large majority. In this way Frontier became the part of Pakistan and the Muslims of Frontier got their independence.

 

 

 

Role of Quaid-e-Azam as Governor General

 

Quaid-e-Azam As A Governor General

On 14th August 1947, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah became the 1st Governor General. He remained Governor General for thirteen months. During this period, he solved many important national issues. Some of them are mentioned as under:

Formation of Federal Cabinet

As soon as the Quaid-e-Azam took an immediate action and nominated members of the Federal Cabinet to run the Government affairs smoothly. Liaquat Ali Khan was elected as the Prime Minister. Other members of the cabinet were also nominated. This first cabinet of Pakistan took oath on 15th August 1947.

Members of the Cabinet

  1. Sardar Abdul Rab Nisther (Transports)
    2. Raja Ghazanfer Ali Khan (Agriculture)
    3. Fazal-ur-Rehman (Education)
    4. I.I Chundrigar (Industry)
    5. Ghulam Mohammad (Finance)
    6. Jogander Nath Mandal (Law)
    7. Sir Zafar Ullah Khan Qadyani (Affair)

Constitutional Problems

The Act of 1935 was amended and enforced in the country as there was no constitution available of the newly born state. Thus this great achievement was done under the administrative leadership of the Quaid-e-Azam.

Establishment of Capital

Karachi was made Capital of Pakistan.

Provincial Government

Quaid-e-Azam elected Chief Minister and Governor. Here are chief ministers of provinces:
Khan Iftikhar Hussain Mumdot – Punjab
Khuwaja Nazam-ud-Dn – East Bengal
Khan Abdul Qayyum – N.W.F.P
Mohammad Ayub Khuro – Sindh
Chief Commissioner (British) – Baluchistan

Establishment of Administrative Head Quarters

For the administrative reformation, a committee was set up and Chaudhry Mohammad Ayub was made the Secretary General. Civil Services were re-organized and Civil Services Academy was constituted. The Secretariat was established. Moreover, Head quarters for Army, Navy and Air Force were set up. An ammunition factory was also set up.

Attention to Foreign Affairs

Realizing the sensitivity of foreign affairs, Quaid-e-Azam paid his utmost attention to the Foreign Policy. He developed healthy relations with the neighboring and developed countries that were the main objective of the Foreign Policy.

Membership of UNO

After independence, Quaid-e-Azam paid immediate attention for acquiring membership of the United Nations Organization (UNO). On 30th September 1947, Pakistan became the member of the UNO. This all, was done under the dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-Azam.

Implementation of Education Policy

Education plays an important role in the development of a country. It improves living standard of a nation and development. Education sector also needed attention at the time of independence. for this purpose, he held the first Educational Conference in 1947. He wished that every citizen of Pakistan should serve his nation with honesty and national spirit. he made nation with honesty and national spirit. He made acquisition of scientific and technological education compulsory for the students. Quaid-e-Azam did a lot to improve education policy of the country.

In the Service of Pakistan

Quaid-e-Azam served his country till his death. Despite his bad health, he kept on going through the important files. He succumbed to deadly disease of consumption.

First Cabinet of Pakistan

First cabinet of Pakistan was also elected by Quaid-e-Azam. He took of it. Liaquat Ali Khan was first Prime Minister of Pakistan.

 

 

 

3rd June Plan

3rd June Plan and Lord Mountbatten

Lord Mountbatten became the viceroy of India in March 1947. He tried his best to keep India United but of no avail. He concluded that there was no solution to Indian problems except partition of it.
3rd June Plan and the Creation of Pakistan

On 3rd June 1947 the viceroy announced the partition plan in a joint conference of Congress and Muslim League leaders in Delhi. The plan came to be known as 3rd June Plan. Some important points of the plan were as under:

The Indian Independence Bill 1947

Power would be given to Pakistan by 14th August 1947. This bill was passed and came to be known as Independence Bill 1947.

Separate Session

A clause was incorporated in the 3rd June Plan that separate session of Muslim and Hindu Members of the Assemblies of Punjab and Bengal would be held to decide whether their provinces were in favour of the partition, and how it would take place.

New Boundaries

the new boundaries of these provinces would be decided by a commission.

Sindh Assembly

Sindh Assembly would decide the future state of the province through the majority of volte. Sindh Assembly voted for Pakistan.

People of N.W.F.P and Sylhet

The people of N.W.F.P and Sylhet would decide their status through a referendum. N.W.F.P and Sylhet also decided to join Pakistan.

Conclusion

The viceroy announced the plan on 3rd June 1947. According to the plan it was decided to transfer the power on the midnight of the 14th and 15th August 1947 instead of 3rd June 1947.

 

 

 

 

Radcliff Award

 

Mr. Radcliff, an ordinary lawyer was sent from England to India for the demarcation of the boundaries of Punjab and Bengal. The viceroy and Mr. Radcliff connived with the Congress and demarcated the boundary according to their wishes. Radcliff included many Muslim majority, areas in India and deprived Pakistan of the waters of Sutlej, Bias and Ravi. Further captured Kashmir and created a Kashmir problem which is still unsolved. The defective planning of Radcliff created many problems for Pakistan unsolved. The defective planning of Radlciff created many problems for Pakistan.

Dawn of Independence

Independence has a great importance for the nations. Pakistan came into being as independent state on 14th August 1947 27th Ramadan and India on 15th August 1947.

 

 

 

Short Question and Answers

Q.1 Write four sentences about the services of Hazrat Shah Waliullah?

Ans.
1. he was a great saint and religious scholar. He preached the Muslims of Sub continent.
2. He reconciled the mutual differences among Muslims.
3. He eradicated the bad manners of assemblies.
4. he set the straight forward path for Muslims.

Q.2 Write any four sentences about the services of Hazrat Shah Abdul Aziz?

Ans.
1. He extended the work of Shah Waliullah.
2. He framed a revolutionary program.
3. He forced Muslims to establish an islamic state.
4. he took severe action against the anti Islamic powers specially Sikhs.

Q.3 Write any four objectives of Syed Ahmed Shaheed’s Jehad Movement?

Ans.
1. To preach the concept of oneness of Allah.
2. To establish an Islamic State.
3. To preach Jihad.
4. To revive Islamic teachings.

Q.4 Write four sentences on the Faraizi Movement?

Ans.
1. Haji Shariatullah started Faraizi Movement.
2. The purpose of this movement was to reform the Bengali Muslims.
3. The movement proved useful to eradicate non Islamic customs and traditions of Bengali Muslims.
4. Islamic techniques were also carried out under the Faraizi Movement.

Q.5 What were the causes of down fall of Mughal Empire?

Ans.
1. Lack of national unity.
2. Highly Centralized Administration.
3. Lack of spirit of Jihad.
4. Educational decline.

Q.6 What were the causes of war of Independence?

Ans.
1. Political Causes
2. Economic Causes
3. Religious Causes
4. Social Causes

Q.7 Write four sentences about Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.

Ans.
1. He started Aligarh Movement for social, educational and religious services for Muslims.
2. he wrote a pamphlet to remove the confusions between the British and the Muslims after the war of Independence 1857.
3. he established schools in Muradabad, Gazipur and in Aligarh.
4. He gave the Two Nation Theory.

Q.8 Write four sentences about the Hindus agitation against the partition of Bengal.

Ans.
1. They felt an insult of the national character of India.
2. They criticized the British Government that they had divided Bengal to weaken the freedom of Congress.
3. They started civil disobedience.
4. They created political disorder and unrest in the country.

Q.9 What demand were made by Muslim in 1906 by Simla Delegation?

Ans.
1. Muslim demand separate electorate for Muslims.
2. They demanded full representation in services.
3. They demanded aid for the establishment of the Muslim University.
4. They demanded weight age in all elected bodies.

Q.10 Why Muslim league was established?

Ans. There were three main factors for the establishment of Muslim League:
1. To protect and safeguards the Muslim’s interest.
2. To cope with the “Minto Morley Reforms.”
3. To promote Muslim loyalty to British Government.

Q.11 Write four sentences about Lucknow Pact.

Ans.
1. Congress accepted the idea of separate electorate for the Muslims.
2. No bill offending a particular community should be proceeded within any council if three fourths of the representatives of that community oppose it.
3. Hindu-Muslim unity was stressed.
4. The Muslims and Hindus were to have weightage in provinces where they formed minorities.

Q.12 What were the main causes of mutiny of war of independence?

Ans.
1. Official interference in religion.
2. The acts which caused restlessness among the Indian soldiers.
3. Absence of Indian representation in the administration of the country.
4. Social reparation between the rules and ruled.

Q.13 What were the main object of Muslim Anglo Oriental College?

Ans.
1. To reject the past tradition and speed up the progress of the Muslims.
2. To reconcile oriental learning with western literature and science.
3. To facilitate western education to the Indian Muslims.
4. To create practical energy among Muslims.

Q.14 Write the four objectives of Khilafat Movement.

Ans.
1. To maintain the Turkish Caliphate.
2. To maintain the unity of Ottoman Empire.
3. To project the holy places of the Muslims.
4. To maintain brotherhood among the Muslim world.

Q.15 Write three sentences about Non-Cooperation Movement.

Ans.
1. To surrender all the British titles.
2. To boycott the British law Courts.
3. Non participation in election.
4. Withdrawal of all students from the education institution.

Q.16 Write any four recommendations of Simon Commission.

Ans.
1. The abolition of diarchy form of government.
2. He rejected Muslims demands regarding one third representation of the centre and statutory majorities in the Punjab and Bengal.
3. He postponed the separation of Sindh from Bombay.
4. He agreed the fair representation for the minorities in the legislatures and in the executives.

Q.17 Write any four proposals of Nehru Report.

Ans.
1. Abolition of Muslims demand of separate electorate.
2. Reservation of Muslim seats was refused.
3. Hindi should be made the official language.
4. the separation of Sindh from Bombay was accepted.

Q.18 Write any four points of the famous Fourteen Points of Quaid-e-Azam.

Ans.
1. In the central legislative, Muslims representation should not be less than one third.
2. Sindh should be separated from the Bombay Presidency.
3. A uniform measure of autonomy should be granted to all the provinces.
4. Reforms should be introduced in the N.W.F.P and Baluchistan on the same footing as in other provinces.

Q.19 When and where the three round table conference were held?

Ans.
1. The first Round Table Conference was held in London from 22nd November, 1930 to 19th January, 1931.
2. The second Round Table Conference was held in London from 7th September, 1931 to 31st December, 1931.
3. The third Round Table Conference was held in London from 17th November, 1932 to 24th December, 1932.

Q.20 Write any four effects of Pakistan Resolution.

Ans.
1. Muslims were relieved from the Hindus dominion.
2. Gandhi become annoyed and called it a “Moral Mistake”.
3. Hindus dream of “Ram Raj” was vanished.
4. Muslims got a country where they could live according to the teachings of Islam.

Q.21 Write any four points about the role of Quaid-e-Azam as a Governor General.

Ans.
1. He created an establishment of officers.
2. He created National Spirit and patriotism in the newly born country.
3. he started public contracts and visited frequently Baluchistan and N.W.F.P.
4. He paid special attention towards the economy of Pakistan.

 

 

 

 

Fill in the Blanks

  1. Hazrat Shah Walliullah was born in 1703and was died in 1762.

    2. Hazrat Shah Abdul Aziz was born in 1746and was died in 1824.

    3. Syed Ahmed Shaheed was born in 1786 and was died in 1831.

    4. Hazrat Shah Walliullah became incharge of Madrassa Rahimiya in 1734.

    5. The ruler of Afghanistan Ahmed Shah Abdali rescued Indian Muslims from Marathas.

    6. Hazrat Shah Walliullah translated the Holy Quran in Persian Language.

    7. Hazrat Shah Walliullah invited the ruler of Afghanistan Ahmed Shah Abdali.

    8. Syed Ahmed Shaheed was the disciple of Hazrat Shah Abdul Aziz.

    9. Syed Ahmed Shaheed was given the name The Leader of the Faithful.

    10. Syed Ahmed Shaheed fought battles with Sikhs.

    11. Syed Ahmed Shaheed had started the Jihad Movement.

    12. The Sikh ruler Maharaja Ranjeet Singh bribed Pathan leader to kill Syed Ahmed Shaheed.

    13. Faraizi Movement was started by Haji Shariatullah.

    14. Faraizi Movement was started to eradicate non Islamic customs and traditions among Bengali Muslims.

    15. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan started Aligarh Movement.

    16. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan published a famous pamphlet Asbab-e-Baghawat -e-Hind.

    17. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan established the scientific society at Ghazipur in 1862.

    18. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan established Muslim Anglo Oriental School in Aligarh, in 1875.

    19. Mohammad Bin Qasim conquered Sindh and introduced Islam in the Sub-Contient.

    20. Allama Iqbal presented the Two Nation Theory on 30 December 1930 at Allahabad.

    21. In 1885 Allan Octarian Hume formed Indian National Congress.

    22. The portion of Bengal was made in 1905.

    23. The partition of Bengal was made by Viceroy Lord Curzon.

    24. Simla Delegation of Muslims was led by Sir Agha Khan in 1906.

    25. Muslim League was established in 1906.

    26. Muslim League was established in Baluchistan by Qazi Mohammad Isa.

    27. Sir Agha Khan was the first president of Muslim League.

    28. Quaid-e-Azam became the life time president of Muslim League in 1934.

    29. Gandhi started in Civil Disobedience Movement.

    30. On 23rd March 1942, Cripps Mission came to India.

    31. Independence Act was passed on 27th July 1947.

    32. Lord Mount Batten was the first Governor General of India.

    33. Lord Mount Batten was the last viceroy of India.

    34. In 1940, Quaid-e-Azam presided the Annual session of Muslim League at Lahore.

    35. In 1940, Pakistan Resolution was passed.

    36. Kashmiri Muslims got 1/3rd territory of Kashmir in 1948.

    37. Over Kashmir issue, three wars were fought between Pakistan and India in 19481965 and 1971

    38. In 1961, Indus water treaty was signed between Pakistan and India

 

 

 

 

Constitution

Constitution is the supreme law of any state. Every state has its own constitution. Constitution describes the basic structure of state, its organs, legislature, executive and judiciary and their internal relationship.
Need For A Constitution
There are the following points for the need of a constitution.

It is necessary for every country.

It provides leadership to manage the government affairs.

It is the basic law of any state as every state has its own constitution.

It describes the basic structure of state, its organs, legislature executive and judiciary and their internal relationship.

Austin’s Definition

Austin describes the definition of Constitution in such a way;

“The form of law which describes the basic structure of state is called constitution.”

Importance of Constitution

The Importance of Constitution can be stated as under:

Supreme Law

Constitution is the supreme and essential law of every state, which cannot be forgotten.

Basic Law

Constitution is the basic law, collection of laws and traditions of any state which cannot be forgotten.

Constitution As A Law

Every individual and institution is subordinate to the Constitution of the country.

Serious Crime

It is the duty of every person to obey the constitution because violation of constitution is a serious crime.

Loyalty To the Constitution

Every Government must follow the constitution and remain loyal to it.

Government’s Duty

Every government performs its duties and functions within constitutional limits.

Basic Object

Constitution defines the basic objective and priorities of the government.

Reflect the Emotions

Constitution reflects the emotions and feelings of the people.

State Policy

Policies and the laws of the state are made in the light of the constitution.

Absence May Cause Chaos and Confusion

Because of absence of constitution it may cause chaos and confusion in the state.

Power and Functions of the Government

Powers and Functions of three important organs of Government are defined in the light of constitutions of the country.

Check the Monopoly

Constitution may check the monopoly of Governmental institutions or agencies.

Protect the Right of the People

Constitution may protect the right of the people and people are equal before law.

Main Object of Creation of Pakistan

Pakistan came into being in the name of Islam. So the people of Pakistan can lead their lives according to the basic principles of Islam

 

 

 

 

Salient Features of Objective Resolution

Objective Resolution

After the death of Quaid-e-Azam on 11th September 1948, the responsibility of framing the constitution fell on the shoulders of the first Prime Minister, Liaquat Ali Khan.This resolution was passed by the First Constituent Assembly in March 1949 under the leadership of Liaquat Ali Khan.

Salient Features of Objective Resolution

The salient features of the Objective Resolution are as follows:

Sovereignty Belongs to Allah

The resolution clearly laid down that sovereignty over the entire universe belongs o Almighty Allah alone and the authorities to be exercised by the people of Pakistan as a sacred trust.

Federal System

Federal System of Government will be introduced in Pakistan.

Golden Principles of Islam

Principles of democracy, equality, freedom and social justice as laid down by Islam shall be fully observed.

Supreme Authority of the People

The sovereignty of the state will be established through the elected representative of the people.

Life According to the Teachings of Islam

The Muslims shall be provided with opportunity to order their lives in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam.

Protection of the Rights of Minorities

The rights and interests of the minorities to freely profess and practice their religion will be protected.

Equal Rights to Citizens

All citizens will enjoy their rights on the principle of equality.

Development of Under Developed Areas

All efforts will be made for the development and progress of the under developed areas.

Independence Judiciary

Judiciary will be independent.

Objective Resolution and Liaquat Ali Khan

While introducing the resolution in the Constituent Assembly, Liaquat Ali Khan said:

“The ideals that promised the demand for Pakistan should form the corner stone of the state. When we use the word ‘Democracy’ in the Islamic sense it pervades all aspects of life. It relates to the system of government and to our society will equal validity because one of the greatest contributions of Islam has been the equality of men.”

Importance of the Objective Resolution

This resolution is of fundamental importance in the history of constitutions making in Pakistan because from the first constitution of 1956 till the constitution of 1973 (present constitution) whatever constitution was framed it was based on this objective resolution. It contains those steps and principles which were to be taken for the fulfillment of the basic aim of the freedom struggle that is the establishment of an Islamic society in Pakistan. Hence, it is a significant document in the constitutional history of Pakistan.
When Liaquat Ali Khan visited America, in the course of his speech at New Orleans, he said,

“We believe in God and his Supreme sovereignty because we believe that civic life must have an ethical content and a higher purpose. But democracy, social justice, equality of opportunity and equality before the law of all citizens irrespective of their race and creed are also aspects of faith with us.”

Basic Principles Committee

After passing the Objective Resolution, the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan set up a “Basic Principle Committee” to spell out proposals for the constitution in accordance with the guidelines contained in the Objective Resolution.

Conclusion

All the above mentioned principles were present in the Objective Resolution that is why this resolution is considered an important event in the constitutional history of the country. It was accepted by all classes of people. It provided a guide line for the future constitutions of Pakistan which were passed in 1956, 1962 and 1973. It consisted of such principles which revealed that character of constitution shall be Islamic.

 

 

 

 

Evolution of Constitution Making in Pakistan

The Meaning and Importance of Constitution

Constitution is the collection of those basic principles and laws which explain the rights of the citizens, powers of different departments and their mutual relations. The constitution is the backbone of any country. The country is like a trust for the life, and protection of people of the country. It protects the rights of citizens and proves helpful in running the system of a country in an organized way.

Government of India Act 1935

Government of India Act, 1935 was enforced with little changes and amendments at that time when Pakistan was newly born. The aim was to run the government temporarily till the constitution is made. India Act was prepared by English and this could not fulfill our needs according to our national requirements and interests.

Objective Resolution

The first step towards constitution making in Pakistan was taken in March 1949 when our first legislative council sanctioned Objective Resolution. Liaquat Ali Khan was the Prime Minister of Pakistan. This resolution is the base of our constitution, it is said that Allah is the supreme power and citizens of Pakistan will use it within limits of Quran and Sunnah. No constitution can be practiced in Pakistan which goes against the injunctions of Islam. It is the duty of the government to make arrangements for the Muslims of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the rules of Quran and Sunnah.

Preparation of Constitution

It was hoped that the constitution will be mae within one and a half years after the sanction of Objective Resolution but unfortunately it could not happen. There were other reasons along with the murder of Liaquat Ali Khan. First Legislative Assembly made committee named the Committee of Basic Principles. Instead other sub-committees were also formed. But objective was not achieved and the process of constitution making became very slow.

Secondary Legislative Assembly

On 21st December, 1954 Governor-general of Pakistan Ghulam Mohammad dissolved the Legislative Assembly and the elections of second Legislative Assembly in 1955 were held in an indirect way. This new assembly started the work of constitution making once again.

 

 

 

 

Important Characteristics of the Constitution of 1956

Constitution of 1956

The Legislative Assembly prepared first Constitution in 1956 which was enforced on March 1956. At that time Chaudhry Mohammad Ali was the Prime Minister. This constitution remained in action till 7th October 1958.
Important Features of the Constitution of 1956

Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Pakistan was declared as an Islamic Republic.

Federal Parliamentary System

Federal Parliamentary system was introduced in the country.

Sovereignty of Allah

It was affirmed that all powers belong to Allah and exercised through the elected representatives.

Lives According to Islam

People were provided necessary environment to lead their life according to Islam. Minorities were guaranteed full religious freedom.

Citizen Right

Full civic rights were guaranteed to citizen.

Independent Judiciary

Judiciary was guaranteed an independent work. Judges were given security of services.

Urdu and Bengali as National Languages

Urdu and Bengali were declared as national languages under the 1956 constitution.

Written Constitution

1956 constitution was written in home.

Abrogation of the Constitution

1956 constitution was approved after hard work of nine years but due to multiple reasons it did not last for long in October 1958 constitution was abrogated. Commander in Chief of Pakistan Army General Mohammad Ayub Khan imposed Martial Law by dissolving the cabinet and Federal Legislature. He assumed the office of President and Martial Law Administrator.

 

 

 

 

Important Characteristics of the Constitution of 1962

Constitution of 1962

President Ayub Khan established a Constitutional Commission. This commission sent its recommendations. According to these recommendations a new constitution was prepared and enforced on 8th June, 1962 and Martial Law was finished.

The Main Features of 1962 Constitution

Following are the main features of constitution of 1962:

Written Constitution

The constitution was in written form and it constituted of 250 articles and 5 schedules.

Federal Constitution

The constitution was federal in nature.

Presidential Form of Government

Presidential form of Government was enforced instead of parliamentary system.

Islamic Issues

Various Islamic provisions were incorporated in the constitution i.e. sovereignty of Allah and exercises of power through the elected representatives of people. Pakistan was named as Islamic republic of Pakistan. It Head must be a Muslim as compulsory.

Basic Human Rights

People were given fundamental rights.

National Languages

Urdu and Bengali were declared the national language of Pakistan.

Failure of Constitution of 1962

In 1968-69 the political parties of the country started agitation against Ayub Khan and Presidential system, enforced parliamentary system and democratic constitution. This movement became much powerful within few months and there were agitations seen everywhere in the country. As a result of such situation on 25th March, 1969 President Ayub Khan resigned and transferred his powers to Commander in Chief Yahya Khan. He abrogated the constitution of 1962 and enforced Martial Law in the country.

 

 

 

 

Islamic Provisions of 1973 Constitution

Introduction

The following are the Islamic provisions of 1973 constitution based on the principles of:
1. Holy Quran and Sunnah
2. Islamic Republic of Pakistan
3. Pakistan shall be known as “Islamic Republic of Pakistan”.
4. State Religion
5. Islam shall be the state religion of Pakistan.
6. Sovereignty belongs to Allah.

Sovereignty Belongs to Allah

Sovereignty over the entire Universe belongs to Almighty Allah and the authority bestowed by him on men is a sacred trust which the people o Pakistan will exercise with the limits prescribed by Quran and Sunnah.

Definition of a Muslim

The constitution also gives the definition of a Muslim. A person who believes in Tauheed or Oneness of Allah and in the prophet hood of Hazrat Mohammad

A Muslim to be A President and Prime Minister

The constitution lay down that only Muslims shall be elected President and Prime Minister of Pakistan. Non could not hold these offices.

Islamic Way of life

Steps shall be given to enable the Muslims of Pakistan to order their lives in accordance with the fundamental principles and basic concepts of Islam.

Promotion of Social Justice and Eradication of Social Evils

The state shall take necessary steps for prosecution of social justice and eradication of social evils and shall prevent prostitution, gambling and taking of injurious drugs, printing, publication, circulation and display of obscene literature and advertisements.

Teachings of Holy Quran

The state shall try to make the teachings of Holy Quran and Islamiat compulsory to encourage and facilitate the learning of Arabic language.

Strengthen Bond with Muslim World

The state shall endeavour to strengthen fraternal relations among Muslim countries in order to promote Islamic unity.

Council of Islamic Ideology

There is a council of Islamic ideology which shall guide the government in respect of Islamic teachings, their implementation and propagation. Its chairman and members are appointed by President. Although its advice is not blinding on the government yet it is not easy for any government to ignore or over rule its suggestion or opinion regarding any law.

Error Free Publication of Quran

The government shall endeavour to secure correct and exact printing and publishing of the Holy Quran.

Oath to Project and Promote Islamic Ideology

The Federal and Provincial Ministers, the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the National and Provincial Assemblies, the Chairman of the Senate and the Governors and Chief Ministers of the Provinces also take oath to preserve and protect the Islamic Ideology.

Ahmadi’s A Non Muslim Minority

According to the second amendment of 1973 constitution, the Qadiani group or the Lahori group who call themselves “Ahmadi’s” were declared as Non-Muslim minority.

Conclusion

The 1973 constitution enlisted the main principles of State Policy Maximum efforts were made to improve the character of this constitution. Like other constitution, 1973 constitution of Pakistan also provides for the protection, propagation and enforcement of Islamic Ideology.

 

 

 

 

Short Question and Answers

 

Q.1 Write any four features of Objective Resolution.

Ans.
1. Sovereignty belongs to Almighty Allah.
2. Rights of minorities were safeguard.
3. The Judiciary would be free and independent.
4. Fundamental rights of the citizens were guaranteed.

Q.2 Write any four features of constitution of 1956.

Ans.
1. It was a written constitution.
2. No law repugnant to Quran and Sunnah can be enacted in the country.
3. President would be Muslim.
4. The parliamentary type of Government was suggested.

Q.3 Write Islamic processions of the constitution of 1952.

Ans.
1. The name of the country would be Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
2. President would be Muslim.
3. The existing laws would be made Islamic in character.
4. No law against Quran and Sunnah would be acceptable.

Q.4 Write any four features of 1962 constitution.

Ans.
1. It was a written constitution.
2. Unicameral Legislature was suggested. It means only one house known as National Assembly.
3. The President would be head of the state for five years.
4. Urdu and Bengali were recognized as National language.

Q.5 Write any four Islamic Provisions o the constitution of 1962.

Ans.
1. The name of the state would be “Islamic Republic of Pakistan”.
2. Only a Muslim could become the president of Pakistan.
3. Teaching of Quran and Islamiat was made compulsory.
4. The president would appoint “Advisory Council of Islamic Ideology.”

Q.6 Write any four causes of fall of East Pakistan.

Ans.
1. East and West Pakistan were situated at a great distance from each other.
2. The social structure of the two wings was different.
3. Both wings spoke different languages. Bengali was spoken in East Pakistan.
4. Bengali Hindu teachers teach though negative thinking to East Pakistani students.

Q.7 Write any four features of the constitutions of 1973.

Ans.
1. The president must be a Muslim not less than 45 years of age.
2. The parliamentary form of Government was established.
3. The prime minister would be elected by the majority of the National Assembly.
4. Urdu was recognized as the National Language of Pakistan.

Q.8 Write the Islamic Provisions of the constitution of 1973.

Ans.
1. The country was named “Islamic Republic of Pakistan”.
2. The President and Prime Minister should be Muslim.
3. All the laws were Islamized.
4. No law could be framed against the Islamic principles.

Q.9 What role should be played by a citizen o Pakistan for its development?

Ans. A good citizen should play the following duties for the development of Pakistan.
1. He should work hard for the economic growth.
2. he should be a patriotic citizen.
3. He should be well educated.
4. He should have pride to be called Pakistani citizen.

 

 

 

 

 

Fill in the Blanks

 

  1. Constitution is the SupremeLaw of any state.

    2. Constitution is the basiclaw of any state.

    3. Every government performs its duties and functions within constitutionallimits.

    4. After the independence of Pakistan, the Government of India act 1935, with certain amendments was adopted by Pakistan.

    5. The Quaid-e-Azam was died on 11th September 1948.

    6. The Objective Resolution was passed by the First Constituent Assembly in March 1949 under the leadership of Liaquat Ali Khan.

    7. On 21st December 1954 Governor General of Pakistan Ghulam Mohammaddissolved the Legislative assembly.

    8. The first constitution of Pakistan was enforced on 23rd March, 1956.

    9. Pakistan was declared as an Islamic Republic under the first constitution in 1956.

    10. In October 1958, the 1956 constitution was abrogated by Commander in Chief of Pakistan Army General Mohammad Ayub Khan.

    11. A new constitution was prepared which was enforced by President Ayub Khan on 8th June, 1962.

    12. The Head of Pakistan must be a Muslim as compulsory under the 1962constitution.

    13. Urdu and Bengali were declared National languages of Pakistan under the 1962 constitution.

    14. On 25th March, 1969 President Ayub Khan resigned and transferred his powers to Commander in
    Chief Yahya Khan.

    15. The constitution of 1973 came into force on 14th August 1973

 

 

 

 

Importance of Location of Pakistan

Location of Pakistan

Pakistan is located between 23 degrees.30 North to 37 degrees North Latitude and 61 degrees East to 77 degrees East Longitude. China lies in the north of Pakistan while Afghanistan and Iran are in the West of it. India lies in the East and in the South is Arabian Sea.

The Importance of Location

The location of Pakistan is not only unique in the world but of special importance in South Asia. Pakistan links the east with the west. Some important neighbouring countries of Pakistan are as under.

China

There is 600 km long territory of Pakistan along the border of China. Both countries have political, cultural and trade relations with each other. A road through Gilgit and Hunza goes to Kashmir, a city of China. This road has been made culling the hard rocks of mountain Karakoram. There is a close cooperation between the two countries in heavy machine industry and many other departments. Silk, cloth, machines etc are imported from China.

Central Asian Islamic Countries

Pakistan has religious, cultural and economic relation with the central Asian Islamic Countries. Pakistan is the only country that provides them the nearest sea route and transport facilities. These countries lie in the North West of the Pakistan.

Afghanistan

Afghanistan is situated to the West of Pakistan. When the English got the control of sub-continent, according to a pact with Afghanistan in 1893, the permanent border between the two countries was marked which is called Durand Line.
This line is about 2240 kilometers long with the border between Pakistan and Afghanistan. Both countries have old religious, cultural and trade terms.

Iran

To the West of Pakistan is the border of Iran along province of Balochistan. It is our Islamic brother country. Iran was the first country which recognized the existence of Pakistan in 1947. Iran has made political and trade pacts known as R.C.D. Its name is E.C.O which means Discipline for Economic Cooperation. Iran openly helped Pakistan during the wars of 1965 and 1971. Pakistan proves its friendship with Iran in every hour of need. Islamic revolution has come in Iran by the end of kingship. It has also better relations with Pakistan.

India

India is a Hindu country in the East of Pakistan. There is a common border of 1600 kilometre in between these countries. Both countries are trying to solve their problems including Kashmir. Due to this enmity, wars of 1948, 1965 and 1971 have been fought between the two countries. In the last war, our one wing East Pakistan got separated from us due to this enmity. India is always busy in conspiracy by the cooperation of a super power despite of knowing that it is better for the welfare of both countries to develop pleasant terms .Fifteen crore Muslims live in India. Their protection is also a big problem.

Trade Through Arabian Sea

Arabian Sea is in Indian Ocean. Most of the trade between east and west is done through Indian Ocean. Pakistan through Arabian Sea is linked with the Muslims Countries of Persian Gulf. All of them are rich in oil. In Karachi Bin Qasim and Gwader are important seaports of Pakistan. In this respect South-East Asian Muslim countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Burunai, Darussalam) and South Asian Muslim countries (Bangladesh, Maldives and SriLanka) are important. So Pakistan has an important strategic position in the world.

 

 

 

 

Mountain Ranges of Pakistan

Introduction

The physical features of Pakistan are no similar everywhere. It means that the land of Pakistan is different in various regions from its type. There are chains of high mountains which are covered with snow throughout the year and also fertile lands and green valleys. There are also vast deserts in Pakistan. There are three relief (Physical Features) of Pakistan.
1. Mountains
2. Plains
3. Plateau

Mountains

The part of earth, which is almost 3000 feet above the sea level and has a broad base, steep slope and a narrow top is called a mountain. Mountain ranges are divided into two parts in Pakistan.
1. Northern Mountain Range
2. Western Mountain Range

  1. Northern Mountains Range

This range includes the Himalayas, the Karakoram and the Hindukush mountain ranges

Himalayan Range

Himalaya is surrounded by most of the part of Pakistan towards North. Himalaya means “the house of ice”. These mountains are spread up to Gilgit. The name of one of its top mountain is Nanga Parbat. Its height is 8,126 meters. The chain of Himalaya saves our plains from cold winds of Middle East. They also stop monsoon from Arabian Sea and Bengal Gulf and becomes the source of rainfall. Their highest tops are covered with snow. When in spring and summer seasons the snow melts, our rivers are supplied with abundant water. On their slopes in the south there are forest of precious wood. The touring resorts of Pakistan like Murree, Nathiagali, Abbottabad and Kaghan Valley are also situated in these ranges. Thousand of people come here for recreation. The valley of kashmir is in the heart of these ranges which is considered the Paradise on Earth.

Karakoram Range

Karakoram is situated in the north of Himalaya in which Northern Kashmir and the regions of Gilgit are situated. The average height of Karakoram range is 7,000 meters. Its highest top is K-2 which is 8.611 meters high. The top of its neighbouring Mountains are covered with snow throughout the year. But in summer the normal life begins and people become busy in earning their livings. The canals flow fast and green grass grows. This mountain range lies between Pakistan and China. Here Karakoram Highway (KKH) has been built along the river Hunza due to which trade between the two countries has progressed very much.

North Western Mountain Range

Hindukush Range

The Hindukush range lies in the north West of Karakoram Range. Most of the mountains of this range are in Afghanistan. The highest top of this range is Tirichimir which is 7690 meters high. In this range Chitral and Deer are situated. These mountains become the source of tains in summer season in Pakistan and India.

  1. Western Mountains Ranges

The Koh-e-Sufain

Khyber Pass is situated in the South of river Kabul which joins Kabul to Peshawar this Pass is an old passage of trade. All the invaders in olden times entered in the Sub-Continent through this Pass which is 53 km long. Peshawar Cantonment lies close to Khyber Pass the koh-e-Sufaid is in the South of this Pass. The average heigh of this are covered with snow throughout the year.That is why it is called Koh-e-Sufaid. River kurram flows in its south. Trade with Afghanistan is carried out through Kurrahi Pass.

Kohat And Waziristan Hills

Kohat and Waziristan hills are situated between two rivers i.e. Gomal and Kurram. This mountain range is spread to north-south direction. River Tochi is an important river of this range. There are many passes through these mountains. These passes promote cultural and trade ties between Pakistan and Afghanistan. Tochi and Kurram passes are located in these hills.

Suleiman Range

Koli Suleiman is in the South of River Gornal. The highest peak is Tukht-e-Suleiman which is 3,500 meters high. It is a barren land . It is destroyed due to floods. Government controls flood by constructing high boundaries. Important place is Bolan at which river Bolan is situated. Through this path, railway line reaches Quetta after passing through Sibbi.

Kirthar Range

It is in the south of Karakoram range which is high and dry. The maximum heigh of the Kirthar range is 2150 meters. In its south river Hub and Lyari flow which fall in the Arabian Sea at karachi.

Salt Range

The chain of Salt Range starts from the mountains of Tilla Jogian and Bakrala Hills on the bank of river Jhelum. These chains run for some distance along the river and then in the West after passing through Bannu meet with the Suleiman Mountain. the average heigh of Slat Range is 700 meters. In district Skesar its heigh becomes 1,500 meters. The river Swan is the famous river of this area

 

 

 

 

Plains of Pakistan

Plain Area

This plain is spread, in the South of Slat Range and in the East of Suleiman Range and Kirthur Mountain which is spread up to the Arabian Sea. This region is irrigated by river Indus, Ravi, Jhelum, Sutleg and Chenab. Hence it is called the indus plain. The point of Mithan Kot all other reivers join Indus. The plain above Mithan Kot is called the upper Indus plain. The upper part of river Indus is made of teh soil brouth by rivers. So it is very fertile. There are a few rainfalls in it. There is a long chain of canals spread in this area which is unique in the world. Due to these effects good crops are produced over here. In this plain some hills are seen near Chiniot and Sangla Hill. These are not so high to obstruct roads and canals for irrigation. In the West of river Jhelum there is a desert of Thai. This is now irrigated by canals coming from Jinriah Barrage. Due to which a large part of Thai has been populated. There are many Doabas in this region, For Example Ban Doab, Singh, Sagar Doab, Neli Bar in district Multan and Sahiwal, Gunji Bar and Kuruta Bar. As soon as we go away teh plain became higher and higher. This raised region plain called Daras. In the north of Daras, the plains of Bannu and Peshawar are very fertile. Good crops are found here due to canals and tube wells. The important crops of its region are wheat, rice, cotton, sugar cane, tobacco and oil seeds.

The Lower Indus Plain

The region in the south of Mizhan Kot to the Arabian Sea is called the lower Indus Plain. It includes the most part of Sindh Province. This plain is very fertile. In the North of sindh many canals have been dug due to which good crops are produced. The people of this region are becoming rich day by day.The central part of sindh has been irrigated by canals to a large extent, but the eastern part is still desert. It is called the desert of Thar many arrangements are being made for teh progress of this region. Near Thatha, rever indus starts making Delta and is divided into many branches which afterwards fall in the Arabian Sea. During rainy season most of its part is flooded with water and bring large destruction.

Deserts

The south eastern part of Pakistan consists of deserts. This area includes the district of Bahawalpur, Sukkur, khairpur, Sanghar, Mir Pur Khas and Tharparkar. Following are main deserts of Pakistan.

Cholistan

The area which is situated in Bahawalpur is called Cholistan.

Kharan

This desert is situated in the North West of Balochistan province. Which is called Desert of Kharan. Deserts are unpopulated and barren due to less rainfall.

Coastal Plain

The length of coastal plain of Pakistan is about 700 kilometers which starts from the border of Sindh with an Indian and ends at Pakistan and Iran in the West. The coastal areas of Pakistan are very important due to its geographical situation. Also the possibility of mineral oil in the sea has increased the importance of coastal regions. That is why the government is giving more importance to the progress of these areas.

Plateau

The area which consists of ridges trough basin plains and dessected plains is known as Plateau.

Pothohar Plateau

In the north of Pothohar Plateau, there are Kala Chitta and Margalla Hills. In the south of Salt Range river Jhelum flows in the east and river Indus in the west. The chain of Salt Range starts from the mountains of Tilla Jogian and Bakrala hills on the bank of river Jhelum. These chains runs for some distance along the river and then in the west after passing through Bannu meet with suleiman mountain. The average height of Salt Range is 700 meters. In district sakasar its height becomes 1,500 meters. This is the reason of pleasant weather over here. Although the mountains of salt range are barren but are full or mineral wealth where the reservoirs of salt, gypsum, stone of calcium and coal are present. The famous Khewra Mine of salt is also here. In the north of Salt range is the plateau of Potwar its height is 300-600 meter. The land here is dry and stony. At certain place cultivation is done. Here the reserves of kersone oil are found. Two important rivers flow here. Among them rivers Swan is the larger one. Its valley is called Swan Valley and its famous for old civilization. The name of the second river is river Hurd. These two rivers flow from East to West and fall in river Indus.

Balochistan Plateau

This plateau is located in Balochistan in the south of coastal Makran range. Siahal range, central makran range Rass range are important. There height gradually increases from 300 meters to 2000 meters. In the north of the plateau of Balochistan is Chaghi Range. The famous Khojak pass is in this range. Toba kakar is in the north east of Balochistan. The average height of this range is 3000 meters. In the north west of Balochistan, there are salt lakes. The famous one is Hamun-e-Mashkhel River Gomal, Zhob and Hingol are important. This plateau is frill of precious metals. There are vast oil reserves here. Sui gas is dug from its southern part which is a great blessing of God and Pakistan largely depends upon it for its progress. Here also lie the reserves of coal, iron and chromites and copper.

 

 

 

 

Climatic Regions of Pakistan

Climate

Climate of a country is based on a long study of its weather conditions. Pakistan is situated in the north of tropic of cancer. Pakistan is a sub-tropical country. The average temperature of January in the plains of Pakistan is 4 degree C and maximum temperature of the same month is 24 degree C, whereas the minimum temperature in the month of June/July is 30 degree C and maximum temperature in the same month is 48 degree C. The maximum temperatue of Sibbi and Jocobabad is about 52 degree C.

Elements of Climate

The most important elements of climate are temperature, pressure, winds, rainfall and humidity etc.

Situation of Pakistan

Pakistan is situated in the north of tropic of cancer. Pakistan is a sub-tropical country. It is situated in the western part of the monsoon region. Some of the areas in the north of Pakistan is warm and mist, whereas the mountainous area have highland type climate.

Pakistan is divided into following regions on the basis of its climate.
1. Sub-Tropical Continental highland
2. Sub-Tropical Continental plateau
3. Sub-Tropical Continental lowland
4. Sub-Tropical Coast land

  1. Sub-Tropical Continental higland

It includes Pakistan’s northern mountain ranges (outer and central Himalayas), north-western mountain ranges. (Waziristan, Zobe and Loralai) and the mountain ranges of Balochistan (Quetta, Sara waft, Central Makran and Jalawan). Here the winter is extremely cold, normally there is snowfall. Summer season is quite cool and in spring and winter seasons there is mostly fog and rainfall.

  1. Sub-Tropical Continental plateau

In this climate region most of the parts of Balochistan are included. From may to the mid of september hot and dusty winds continuously blow. Sibbi and Jacobabad are located in this region. There are a few rainfall during the month of January and February (normally 5 cm). Extreme hot, dry and dusty winds are important characteristics of this region.

  1. Sub-Tropical Continental lowland

This climated region includes the upper Indus plain (Punjab Province) and lower Indus plain (Sindh Province). Summer is very hot. The north of Punjab receives less rainfall. Winter rainfall situation is the same. In teh Thai, Kachhi, Sibbi and south-eastarn plains and dry and a large area in desert. The Peshawar plain experience thunder storms and dust storms during summer.

  1. Sub-Tropical Coastland

This climate region includes the coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan province or the southern part of Pakistan. The temperature is moderate. The different between maximum and minimum temperature is less. There is inflow of sea breeze throughout the summer and the humidity is high. Annual average temperature is 32 degree C and rainfall is 18 cm. May and June are the honest months. The plain of Lasbela receives rainfall both in summer and winter seasons. Pakistan is situated in monsoon type of climate. There are extreme variations in the temperature. A major part of Pakistan lies at a great distance from the sea

 

 

 

 

Effects of Climate

The Effect of Climate of Humans

Climate effects lives very much. The dress, way of living, food, professions, plays, customs adn economic life of any country dependes upon its climate and other conditions of weather. Pakistan is very vast in area so different regions differ a lot in their climate, due to this difference of climate the hobbies, professions and way of living of Pakistani people have a large difference.

Northern Mountain region and winter season

In the north it is too cold and the temperature falls below freezing point 0 degree C and some regions have snowfall. In these regions cold has effected the human and animal lives. In winter the growth of grass and other plants stops. Grass is pressed by ice. The leaves of trees falls and the region is covered with snow. At some places teh river and pond water also freezes.

The Activity of Work

In this intence cold people leaves their out a side works and has a stay in their houses. There is neither any play nor any bussiness due to blockage of passages by snowfall. The people here collect food and other things of need for themselves and their animals for this period. Most of the people of this, region go on plains during inter and come back in summer.

North Mountain Region and Summer Season

The condition here is changed by the arrival of summer. The regions become green by the growth of grass and trees. The weather become pleasant. The fountains of clear water and stream add to teh beauty of this region.

Activity of Work

There is a large activity in summer everywhere. People become busy in their work outside the house. Irrigation start and children young men are seen active in their work so that they become able to get their crops before winter. Trade and other bussiness starts. Everyone tries to save something for winter season.

Foreign Jobs

The people of these areas are hardworking, brave and strong. Because the jobs in the northern mountain areas are less so a large number of people not only do jobs in different parts of Pakistan but also in foreign countries. They not only earn their livings by hard work but also bring foreign exchange to Pakistan.

Jobs in Armed Forces

These people play active role in Pakistan Army due to their bravery and have won name in wars.

Heavy Dress

Because of intence cold, the people of this area wear heavy and silky dress.

Hardworking

There is vast plain area of Pakistan in the south of northern mountain region. The climate of this plain is very intense. It is very cold in winter and very hot in summer. Due to its intense kind of climate these people have much patience in the intencse heat the people of this region grow crops and trees. These people start their work early in the morning and work late till night.

Rest in the Afternoon

These people feel it necassary to take in the afternoon to become fresh.

Fruits and Crops

The soil and climate of these regions is suitable for cultivation, so crops are grown in both summer and winter. A large amount of fruit crops, grain is produced. Due to this the people of this area are prosperous.

Highly Populated Areas

These areas are highly populated. Means of transportation are abundant. Education and other necessities of life are available. Most of the people are farmers. Many people also do government jobs. The people of this region also do trade and jobs in industries.

People of Deserts

The southern parts which include Bahawalpur, Khanpur, Mianwali and Muzafargarh are desert like. These are very hot areas in summer. Storms come and mounds af sand change their place from time to time. People save them from heat by wearing thick clothes and hide their head with cap or cloth. The winter season is very short.
Journey in the Night
People do not travel in the daytime. They travel at night in the form of caravans and the bells of their camels can be heard.

Breading the Cattle

Cultivation is done in those areas where canal water is available. The other regions where there is little rainfall, ordinary grass and bushes grow. Here goats and cattle are bread. These people walk from place to place in search of grass and water.

Balochi People

The climate of regions of Balochistan Plateau is very intense. Winter is much cold and there is snowfall here. These people do the work of handicrafts while sitting in their houses in the winter. Balochi women are very expert in emboidery of glasswork. Some people leave this area in winter and return back in summer. The people of Balochistan wear loose clothes and use turban.

Irrigation by Karays

The regions of little rain are irrigated by water of heavy rain stored under ground house. These are called Karays. Because these houses are underground so they do not let water to absorb in the oil or evaporate.

Modern Steps

In regions where underground water is not available the government is making arrangments of tube-wells. The water of fountains is also saved from going waste. These steps have given benefits to certain areas for irrigation and cultivation. The cold and dry climate of this plateau is suitable for the growth of fruits.

Meadows and Green Regions

There is usually the shortage of water in regions of Balochistan. This is the reason that water of natural fountains and reservoirs is considered precious. The meadows and green part of this area are very important. The people pay special attention in breeding goat and cattle. They are brave, hardworking and intelligent.

Professions

Climate has also its effect on human profession. Agriculture is the main profession due to fertile lands of Punjab. The agriculture system is not good in some regions of Jhelum and Rawalpindi, therefore people of these areas prefer military jobs. Here military job is give importance. The people of coastal region are boatmen and fisherman. The people of the frontier do jobs for a short time due to intense cold and snowfall. Their women earn their livings by sewing clothes doing embroidery and handicrafts while the men migrate to different regions to do manual labour. The people of regions where grass and bushes grow breed goats and cattle. They deal in Cotton and do trade. Agriculture regions also progressing from industrial point of view.

Way of Living

Climate effects way of living very much. There is much work of wood in the construction of houses in the regions of heavy rainfall and roofs of these are made in the form of slopes in the lower parts of Sindh where moisture-laden airflows people have made their chambers. In karachi many story buildings are constructed according to its climate. In deserts people live in small tents. In this way, the way of living in Punjab, Frontier and Balochistan is different from each other.

Dress

Climate effects the dress of a region very much. In Punjab villagers use khaddar in winter and thin clothes in summer. People of Frontier due to intense cold wear long and thick clothes. They cover the head with turban. The people of Thar and deserts cover their head with turban and its one part is used to save the neck. In the same way Sindhi and Balochi wear particular dresses. The women of different regions wear different types of dresses

 

 

 

 

Environmental Pollutants

Natural Environment

Physical or natural environment is very essential for the prosperity of life on earth. Natural environment means air water and all these things which are essentials for some form of life.

Necassary for a Healthy Life

Clean air to breathe pure water to drink and food free for impurities are necassary for a healthy life.

Unnecassary Changes in Natural Environment

The unsuitable or unnecassary changes in natural environment can be dangerous for the properity of life. Polluted air, dusty water and impure food etc are injurious to human health.

The Present Condition of World

Now a day the whole world is facing the dangerous problem of environmental pollution. The smoke from cars and factories, solid waste, horn or any such noise are the causes of environment pollution.

Effects of Pollutants

Let us now examine the effects of pollutants in air, water, soil and food etc

Air

Composition of Air

The air is composed of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide etc. These are the bases of existence of every form of life on earth. The oxygen in the air is essential for our life. Where as other gas are necassary for animal and plant life also

Food

Climate also effects our food. The people of mountains use meat, barley and fruit. They need must food to save their body from cold. The people of Punjab use milk, curd and lassi. The main portion of the food of the people living near coastal areas is fish. In the same way there is a large difference of food of villagers and the people living in cities.

Pollutants are Increasing

With the increase in population of the world use of fossil fuel or power resoures like coal, oil etc has increased. By burning these fossil fuels the pollution has increased in the air. Therefore, increase in population and industrial development, environment especially air is being effected.

Water

Water is also necassary as like air. We should drink clean and pure water. In 20th century with the industrial revolution and increase in population the use of water has increased. But now a day the availability of pure water to drink has become difficult.

Contaminates of water

Water has been contaminated by different types of germs, bacteria, virus and other chemicls. So by the use of contaminated water the diseases of stomach are spreading. Insecticides not only damage the soil but they contaminate the food crops and vegetables. Different kinds of fertilizers increase the yield of crops but the upper layer of soil and increase the quantity of chemicals in the production.

Problem of Water Logging and Salinity

In those areas, where rainfall is the irrigation system has made the cultivation of land possible. Due to canal system a large amount of water is absorbed by the ground that raises the level of underground water. This brings the salt of the soil out and effects the fertility of the land and a problem of water logging and salinity is increased. Therefore it is necassary that canals should be cemented to avoid the seepage of water by the ground. Tube wells should be installed so that the ground water level can be lowered in these effected areas.

Planted Trees

More trees should be planted on the sides of tides and canals to avoids the flow of soil and decrease the salinity.

Polluted Water of Wastage Material

The polluted water of urban and industrial areas is drained to the rivers and canals. This contaminated water irrigates the agricultural land and gives very harmful results. So this industrial and sewerage water should be recycled and then pumped into the rivers and canals. The strict laws made by the government are not enforced strictly to avoid the disasters.

Wastage Material

At this time out of 50 thousand tones of solid waste produced daily only 20-50 percent is transported to clumps properly. Rest of the solid waste becomes the part of water, soil and air etc and damages the life.

To Control this Issue

Government feels that pollution is harmful for human health. Therefore, National Conservation Strategy (NCS) is working for improvement of environment. The main focus is on the improvements of the institutions, legislation and environment awareness among the people, plantation and marine pollution management. The government of Pakistan has allocated more than Rs.287 million rupees for this purpose to control this issue

 

 

 

 

Short Question and Answers

Q.1 Describe the location of Pakistan?

Ans.
A. It was situated in South Asia.
B. China was situated in North.
C. India is situated in East.
D. Afghanistan was situated in North West of Pakistan.
E. Arabian Sea is in the South of Pakistan.
F. Iran is situated in the South West of Pakistan.

Q.2 Write any four sentences regarding the importance of Pakistan?

Ans.
A. The Middle East oil is supplied through Arabian Sea to all for east countries.
B. Pakistan is surrounded by entered Asian coutries and Middle east countries.
C. Pakistan is the only atomic power among the muslim countries.
D. Pakistan provides road, rail and air lines between east and west.

Q.3 Name the parts of the northern high mountains region?

Ans.
A. The Himalayas
B. The KaraKoram
C. The Hindu Kush mountain Range.

Q.4 Write the parts of the western law mountains regions?

Ans.
A. Swat Mountains.
B. The Koh-e-Safed Range
C. The Waziristan Hills.
D. The Suleiman Mountain Range.
E. The Kirthar Range.

Q.5 Write the three important peaks of Pakistan?

Ans.
A. Trich Mir is situated in Hindu Kush range.
B. Godwin Austin (K2) is situated northern Karakoram mountains.
C. Takhte Suleiman is situated in Koh-e-Suleiman western mountain range.

Q.6 Write down four sentence about upper Indus Plant?

Ans.
A. The plant is situated in the south of fool hill area of Himalayas.
B. Rivers Jhelum, Chenab and Indus flow through this region.
C. The plain depends on Canal irrigation as it gets low rainfall
D. Wheat, rice and cotton are grown in a large quantity.

Q.7 Write down four sentence about lower Indus Plant?

Ans.
A. The soil is alluvial and fertile.
B. The river bed is rising up gradually.
C. It has a level land with a gentle sloap.
D. Wheat and Basmati rice are largely grown.

Q.8 Name the climate region of Pakistan?

Ans.
A. Subtropical coastal region of low rain fall.
B. Subtropical content of low land region.
C. Subtropical continent high land region.
D. Subtropical plateau region.

Q.9 Write the decision of Pakistan on the basis of Temperature?

Ans.
A. North and North Western mountains range.
B. Upper Indus Plan.
C. Lower Indus Plan.
D. Balochistan plateau and that desert.

Q.10 What are the atmosphere conditions of a place?

Ans.
A. Temperature.
B. Rainfall.
C. Winds.
D. Humidity.
E. Pressure.

Q.11 Name the four factors which create air pollution?

Ans.
A. Acidic rain.
B. Diffusion of metallic particles of lead. Mercury etc in the air.
C. Smoke emitted by industries and vehicles.
D. Increases of radio activity (elements atomic number greater than 82)in atmosphere.

‘Q.12 Write the factors responsible for water pollution?

Ans.
A. Agrarian Pollution.
B. Industrial Pollution.
C. Pollution due to democratic use of water.

Q.13 Write the factors responisble for land pollution?

Ans.
A. Water logging and Salinity.
B. Heavy developers action.
C. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers.
D. Excessive grazing of grass land.

Q.14 Write the difference between climate and weather?

Ans.
A. Climate is the average of weather conditions of a place for a long periond (mostly ten years) while weather means the timely changes of physical conditions which occur in morning, daily or weakly in a short space of time.

Q.15 What steps shout be taken to control pollution?

Ans.
A. Smoking emitting vehicles should be prohibited.
B. Animals and humans wasters should not be disposed off into the agriculture fields.
C. Electronic media should be used for the awareness of pollution.
D. Chemical waste should not be thrown into the rivers

 

 

 

 

Fill in the Blanks

  1. Pakistan is situated in the continent of Asia.

    2. Pakistan is an important country of South Asia.

    3. Pakistan total area is 796096sq.Km.

    4. About 58% of the total land of Pakistan consists of mountains and plateau.

    5. About 42% of the total land of Pakistan consists of plains and deserts.

    6. Pakistan stretches from the coast of the Arabian Seato the ranges of Himalayas and Karakoram.

    7. The western and central areas of Pakistan are mountainious.

    8. Pakistan is located between 23 degree north to 37 degree north latitude and 61degree east to 77
    degree east longitude.

    9. China lies in the north of Pakistan.

    10. Afghanistan and Iran are in the west of Pakistan.

    11. India lies in the east of Pakistan.

    12. The Arabian Sea is in the south of Pakistan.

    13. There is 600 Km long territory of Pakistan along the border of China.

    14. The permanent boder between the Afghanistan and Pakistan is called Durand Line

    15. Durand line is about 2240 KM along with the border between Pakistan and Afghanistan.

    16. In Karachi Bin Qasim and Gwadar are important seaports of Pakistan.

    17. The Himalayas, the Karakoram and the Hindukush mountain ranges are in the Northern Mountain Range.

    18. The name of one of Himalayan Range top mountain is Nanga Parbat.

    19. The height of Nanga Parbat is 8,126 meters.

    20. The average height of Karakoram Range is 7000 meters.

    21. K-2 is 8611 meters.

    22. The Hindukush range lies in the North West of Karakoram Range.

    23. Tirichmir is 7690 meters high.

    24. Khyber Pass is situated in the South of river kabul.

    25. Trade with Afghanistan is carried out through Kurrahi Pass.

    26. Kohay Suleiman is in the South of river Gornal.

    27. Kirthar Range is in the south of karakoram range.

    28. The plain above Mithan Kot is called the Upper Indus Plain.

    29. The region is the south of Mizhan kot to the Arabian Sea is called the Lower Indus Plain.

    30. The Lower Indus Plain includes the most part of Sindh Province.

    31. The area which is situated in Bahawalpur is called Cholistan.

    32. The southern part of Sindh is called Thar.

    33. The length of coastal plain of Pakistan is about 700 KM.

    34. The area which consists of ridges, troughs basin plains and dissected plains is known as Plateau.

    35. Kala Chitta and Margalla Hills are in the north of Pothohar Plateau.

    36. The average height of salt range is 700 meters.

    37. Pakistan is situated in the north of Tropic of cancer.

    38. Pakistan is a Sub-Tropical country.

    39. Sub-Tropical continental highland includes Pakistan’s northern mountain ranges, northwestern
    mountain ranges and the mountain ranges of Balochistan.

    40. Sub-Tropical Continental Lowland includes the upper indus plain PunjabProvince and lower indus
    plain Sindh Province.

    41. Sub-Tropical Coastland includes the coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistanprovinces.

    42. Balochi women are very expert in embroidery of glasswork.

    43. The people of Thar and deserts cover their head.

 

 

 

 

Natural Resources and Their Importance in National Development

Human Necassities

The life of human beings and other species have deep relation with earth. The earth provides everthing. Human beings need every thing in form of food, water or minerals. We get food from plants and trees. We get milk from animals. We get water from river and streams. These are resources which Allah (the almighty has gifted us.

Natural Resources

Plants, Trees, Minerals and Water which Allah has created are sufficient for human beings as well as animals. They are called natural resources.

Some Important Natural Resources

The natural resources are rivers, oceans, forests, minerals, fertile plains etc.

Importance of Natural Resources

Gift of Allah

Allah has gifted us with all kinds of resources. Pakistan has mountains, plains, deserts, rivers, fertile soil, ocean etc. Our country is rich in natural resources. Natural resources are necassary for National Development. Natural resources are very important for the development and prosperity of any county. The important thing is that low to utilize them for the welfare of the human beings and development of the country economically.

It is necassary to use the Natural Resources

The population of Pakistan is increasing rapidly. It is a very good sign that the people of Pakstan are working hard sincerely for the development of country and government is also working for the progess and prosperity of Pakistan. We should have to use the national and human resources to the maximum to develop our country so we can acheive an important position in the world.

 

 

 

Soil and Basic Types of Soil

Soil

The upper layer of the earth which is composed of different thin rock particles is helpful in the growth of vegetation and plants that is called soil.

Basic Components of Soil

Soil has three basic components.
1. Solid particles like salt, mineral and organic matter.
2. Air.
3. Water.

Importance of Soil

The kind of soil totally depends upon climate, location, vegetation and rock material. The agriculture of a country depends upon her soil’s structure and kinds. Soil is a gift of nature.

Alluvium

Those materials which are transported from one place to another by rivers and deposited at other places are called alluvium.

Aeolian Soil

Similarly wind also transports the material from one place to another which is deposited over the surface that is called Aeolian Soil.

Classification of Soils

The soil of Pakistan may be classified according to the regional basis.

Indus basin Soils

The indus plain is made with the deposition of alluvium by the indus river its tributaries. For the last thousands of years rivers have been depositing the soil in the form of layers. These soils have more calcium carbonate and less organic matter. These soils are divided into three main categories.

Bongar Soils

Bongar soils cover a vast area of indus plain. The area includes most of the part of Punjab, Peshawar, Mardan, Bannu and Kachhi plain. A major part of the province of sindh is also comprised of these soils. Some of these soils are rich and irrigated give very good production. Usually these soils are far from the present rivers beds.

Khaddar Soils

Khaddar soils are also formed along the rivers. So every year new layer of salt clay is deposited. These soils have low content of organic matter and salt.

Indus Delta Soils

These soils cover the river Indus Delta. They extent from Hyderabad to the south coastal area. Most of the soils is clay and developed under floodwater. Rice is cultivated in the major part of these soils.

Mountain Soils

These soils mostly cover the highlands of northern and western areas of Pakistan. The soils of northern mountainous areas have high content of organic matters because the climate is moist. Whereas the soils of western mountainous areas have high content of calcium carbonate and low content of organic matter because the climate of these areas is arid and semi-arid. The soils of Pothwar plateau have high lime content. They are productive when plenty of water is available.

Sandy Desert Soils

The soils cover the western areas of Balochistan, Cholistan and the desert of Thar in Pakistan. They are formed by layers of sand particles. They have moderate quantity of calcium carbonate. They are made of disposition of sandy soil layer by layer Arid and semi-arid type of climate effect these soils. So the economic activities are very low in deserts.

 

 

 

Forest and their Importance

Types of Forests in Pakistan

Evergreen Forests

There are evergreen forests in northern and north-western parts of Pakistan, as these areas receive more rainfall. Beautiful scenes attract human beings. In this way forest are the means of beauty and attraction. These forest include deodar, firs, blue pine, spruce, chalghoza, oak, chestnut and walnut are also important. These are found in Murree, Mansehra, Abbotabad, Chitral, Swat and Dir Hardwood for the making of furniture is available from these trees.

Foot-Hill Areas Forests

Phulai, Kao, Jand, Acacia, wild olive, black berry etc are found in the foothill areas of these forests. The district of Peshawar, Mardan, Kohat, Attock, Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Guj rat are important in this respect.

Dry-Hill Forests

The dry-hill forests are found at altitude of about 900 to 3000 meters in Quetta and kalat division of Balochistan. Other than thorny forests Mazoo, Chaighoza and poplar are important trees.

Miscellaneous Forests

Some of the forests are found in Sukkur, Kotri and Guido. The forests department plants trees like mulberry, sum bal, dhrek and eucalyptus along the rivers, canals and railway lines.

Mangrove Forests

Mangrove forests are found along the coastline from Karachi to Kutch.

Importance of Forests

Forest plan an important role being a natural resource in the development af a country as explained below.

Slow Melting of Ice and Soil Erosion

Rain and snow in heavy quantity fall on the northern mountains of Pakistan. These areas are the main source of water of rivers. The forest also stop soil erosion as they slow down the speed of rainwater on the slopes of mountains. They also irrigate teh plains regularly.

Forest provide Fuel

Forest provide wood as fuel in place of coal. They also provide timber, firewood, gum and other useful things which are very important for the trade of country.

Pleasant Climate

Forest make the climate of an area very pleasant as they reduce heat and pollution.

Rainfall

Temperature is reduced by forests and air becomes moist. Rainfall in a region increases due to presence of forests.

Fertility of Soil

Forest keep the soil intact and soil fertility remains uneffected.

Stopage of sand and silt

Rivers carry huge amount of sand and silt that fill our dams and lakes and destroy hydroelectric power projects, the presence of forests stop the sand and silt.

Water Logging and Salinity

Forests are very useful in water logged and salinity effected areas. Trees absorbs water from the soil and lower water level of underground reserves. The forests ate useful in stopping of floods and safety of dams.

Tourism

Forests promote tourism. There are many places in the northern and north-western mountainious areas of Pakistan. Which are covered with forests and known for recreations for the peoples.

Wild LIfe

Forests are very important for wild life. In forests animals of hunting are found from which we get meat. In this way forest are the source of the hunting and also act as places of recreation.

Employment

Forests provide employment to a large part of population in Pakistan.

Fruits and Fodder

Forests provide different kinds of fruits and fodder to animals.

Imporatant role in Economy

Forests plays an important role in the economy of Pakistan. About five million people are directly or indirectly engaged in this sector we can get building, wood from forests. This wood is used in building and also used in the preparation of furniture.

Herbs

The herbs grown in forests are used for the preparation of medicines

 

 

 

 

Forest department of Pakistan

Role of Forests Department

Government has formed Forests Department for looking after forests and preparing new forests and due to it there is a good increase in the number of forests every year. Forests are necassary for the economic progress of a progress.  According to experts 25% area of a country should be consisted of forests for a balanced economy. Unfortunately our forests make 3.6% of the total area of Pakistan which is 19 crore and 70 lac square acre forests cover an area of 72 lac acres. By decrease in the amount of water, the vegetation decreases gradually.

Our Government is trying to increase the forests and has taken following steps.

1. Establishing nurseries in all big cities where plants are available.
2. Tree plantation weeks.
3. Newspaper, magazines, radio and TV provide necassary information and guidance to the people and pursue them to plant trees

 

 

 

 

Minerals of Pakistan

Important Minerals

There are three types of minerals.

Metallic Minerals

  1. Iron ore.
    2. Chromites.
    3. Copper etc.

Non-Metallic Minerals

  1. Rock Salt.
    2. Limestone.
    3. Gypsum.
    4. Marble, Gemstone, China Clay, Fire Clay, Sulphure etc.

Power Resource Minerals

  1. Coal.
    2. Natural Gas.
    3. Crude Oil etc.

Coal

We have not yet discovered coal which can be used in engines. It is mostly used in manufacturing Calcium Carbonate and bricks. Some coal is also used in homes. We have got coal from various spots places but it is not of good quality. It fulfils 10% of our needs.

Places

The biggest mines of coal is Salt Ranges in Kohistan in the region of Makarwat in Punjab. In these regions coal is also found in Dundot and Pudh. Like Makarwal some mines are such whose tunnels are about nine miles long. In the province of Balochistan many reservoirs are found at other places. Coalmines are in Sharg, Hoset, Hernai, Sar, Dagari, Sheeren Aab, Bolan, Aab and Mush. Processing plant is also set in Shargh. In the lower regions of Sindh mines of Jhimpir and Lakhra are important. Government is in search of more mines.

Mineral Oil

Minerals oil is very important in modern age. It is used in factories, industries and transport. Motorcars, tractors, train truck etc depending upon this oil. It is also used in homes. Average production of oil in Pakistan cannot meet its needs. We are getting 10% oil for our needs and the rest of the oil is imported on which we spend a large amount of foreign exchange. Experts say that at certain we can get oil from the sea. For this purpose we started digging in 1985 at the coast of our sea in Karachi. At certain other places are digging our earth. If we succeed we shall satisfy our need of oil from our our resources.

Places

We are getting oil from Khor, Bhullian, Tut, Kot Sarug, Miyal, Dherznund (District Attock), Kazian (District Rawalpindi), Dhodak (District Dera Ghazi Khan), Kursal ( District Jhelum), and Khushkhali (District Badeen). The oil obtained from Attock, Jhelum and Chakwal districts is refined in Morgah Refinery near Rawalpindi. Refinery means the industry where crude oil is refined for different purposes.

Natural Gas

Natural gas is an important discovery. We meet 35% of our need of energy from this gas. This gas is brought in Lahore, Karachi, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Peshawar and other cities by means of pipelines. This gas is used in Industries and also in our homes as fuel. Fine type of fertilizer is prepared in Multan by using this gas. This gas is aslo used in manufacturing Rayon thread and Chemical materials.

Places

The reservoirs of natural gas are in Sui, Uch, Zin, Kherpur, Muzrani, Hindi, Kundkot, Sarung, Dhodak, Peerkoh and Dhullian.

Iron Ore

Iran ore is very important for the progress of a country. We have set up a steel mill in Karachi with the cooperation of Russia. In Pakistan, iron is not of good quality so it is imported to meet our needs.

Places

The biggest reservoir of iron is found in Kala Bagh. Some are also found in Chitral, Khuzdar, Chulgari and Muslim Bagh. Iron obtained from Chitral and Nokundi is of good quality. Our iron fulfills only 16% of our needs.

Copper

It is used in manufacturing electric goods especially electric wires. In past it was only used in making coins and utensils.

Places

Its reservoirs are in provinces of Balochistan and Frontier. In Balochistan it is found in Saindak, Chaghi and some other places. These reservoirs are refined by progressive corporation of natural resources. Corporation is working on this plan with cooperation of foreign experts. The work has been started on crude metal in Saindak and Karachi Laboratory.

Saindak Copper Project

In Balochistan, large deposits of copper, gold and silver have been discovered at saindak, Chagai and Amuri. The economy of Pakistan is depended on these projects. China is collaborating with Pakistan on these projects. According to an estimate saindak will give annual production as below.
Copper = 16,000 Tones
Gold = 1.5 Tones
Silver = 2.75 Tones

Chromite

It is a white metal which is used to make iron. It is also used in manufacturing certain instruments, aero planes and colours. It is also used in the art of photography. It is exported to get large amount of foreign exchange.

Places

Its reservoirs are the biggest of the world in found Pakistan. Theses reservoirs are found in Muslim Bagh. Small reservoirs are found in Chaghi, Kharan, Malakand, Mehmund and North Waziristan.

Rock Salt (Non-Metallic)

Pakistan has vast reserves of salt. It is used in various eatables, the biggest is Khewra Mine. The area of this mine is about 10500 square meters. It is producing high quality of salt from centuries. Another mine is in Khushah. We aslo get salt from mines of Kala Bagh, Jutta and Bahadur Khail. We get salt from seawater near Maripur and Coast of Makran. This sea salt is used to preserve fish and is in some industrial uses. The annual production during the year 2000-01 was 1275 tonnes.

Lime Stone

Limestone is very useful raw material for cement industry. It is found in the northern and western mountain areas of Pakistan mostly. Large deposits are found in Daudthail, Wah, Rohri, Hyderabad and Karachi. The annual production of limestone is 9.9 thousand tonnes.

Gypsum

It is a bright stone of white colour. It is an important wealth of our country. It is used in manufacturing cement, chemical fertilizer and plaster of Paris, Sulphuric Acid and Ammonium Sulphate. It is also used in small industries. The annual production of Gypsum is 358.5 thousand tonnes approximately.

Places

It is obtained from Salt range and western mountainous areas of Pakistan. The important mines of Gypsum are in Khewra, Dandot, Daudkhail, Rohri and Kohat.

Marble

It is a very beautiful stone of white or black colour. It is used in the floores or walls of building to make them attractive and beautiful. A large quantity of white and black marble is found in Cambelpur near Faith Jung in Kala Chitta Hills. District Muzaffarabad and Mirpur of Azad Kashmir are other important areas where marble is found. The annual production of marble is 586.6 thousand tonnes.

Places

In our country marble is of various types. The best in Khyber Agency at Mullah Gori. It is Swat, Noshera, Hazara, Gilgit and Chaghi.

Sulphur

It is the necassary part of explosive material. It is very important for the defence of a country. It is also used in making Sulphuric Acid and many other chemicals. We get crude Sulphur which is made useful by our experts. Soon we will be able to meet our needs of Sulphur. After cleaning Sulphur, it is also used chemical industries. Industries are being set up in Quetta and Karachi.

Places

Its reserves are found in Koh-e-Sultan (District Chaghi) and (District Karachi).

China Clay

China clays is found in Mangora (District Swat) and Nagar Parkar (Sindh).

Fire Clay

It is used in making strong bricks which is used in Kiln of bricks.

Places

It is found in Kohistan Nimak and Kala Citta Hills. Its reserves also are found in Swat, Hazara and Malakand. In Pakistan clay making Chini utensils are also found. This clay is also used in making tiles and sanitary ware. Its reserves are in Swat, Hazara and Malakund.

Calcium Carbonate

It is used in manufacturing cement, sugar and certain other materials. It is also used for the preparation of white wash stone by burning it.

Places

Its reservoirs are found in several parts of our country. Its vast reservoirs are Dandot, Daudkhail, Wah, Rohri, Hyderabad and Karachi.

 

 

 

 

Agricultural problems in Pakistan

Old Types of Agricultural Instruments

In small field’s modern equipment cannot be used. Due to poverty we cannot use modern equipment. Tractors are not commonly used. We do not know much about modern equipments and scientific methods of agriculture hance production per acre less.

Reforms

Our farmers should know about the modern research in the field and should adopt modern scientific methods of agriculture.

Lack of Agricultural Education

Due to lack of modern education, our farmers use old methods and equipments. They do not use new seeds and fertilizers.

Reforms

Farmers should be educated through print and electronic media about agriculture.

Limited Area

The reason of less agricultural production is that our farmers have little amount of land. This is because the number of farmers is increasing with the increase in population.

Reforms

The scattered pieces of land should be converted into big units.

Barren Land

There is very little rainfall in our country. It rainfall is in the time and enough we can get enough crops.

Reforms

There should be introduced reforms in the system of irrigation. New canals should be dug.

Problems of Water Logging and Salinity

It is the major problem of Pakistan especially in certain parts of Sindh. Most parts of Sindh are suffering from this disease. According to an estimate about one lac acre land has become useless due to this problem.

Reforms

There should be planned programmes on national level to reduce this danger.

Insects and Crop Disease

In our lands insects and crops diseases destroy plenty of our crops.

Reforms

Pesticides should be sprayed at the proper time. There should be research work on drops to control these diseases.

Cutting Action on Land

It happens due to storms and heavy rainfall.

Reforms

There should be special arrangements for this problem and chemical fertilizers should be used to enhance the fertility of the soil.

Inferior Seeds and Fertilizers

Our farmers are not familiar with the methods of preserving seeds and using the right amount of fertilizers.

Shortage of Money

Due to lack of money average production is much effected. Our farmers are under the influence of loans so they cannot give full intention to their props. They are always worried about the return of loans.

Reforms

If our farmers get loan on less credit and on easy soft conditions.

Zamindara System

This system in Pakistan has many defects. Land owners hand over their land to tenant who do not take interest in producing more crops. They link that the main part of their crop will be taken by the owner of the land. This effects our average produce very badly.

Reforms

Landlords should take interest in the bussiness. Tenants should be given proper profit and right.

Lack of Medical Facilities

Our farmers is often found suffering from certain medical problems. He is often offering from various diseases due to low standard of living.

Reforms

There must be enough hospitals in the village from the farmers should get proper medical facilities.

Transportation Problems

By insufficient means of transportation farmers cannot bring their production to markets at the right time.

Reforms

Means of transportation should be improved and go downs in a large number are being constructed

 

 

 

 

Irrigation and its Importance

Means of Irrigation

Following are the means of irrigation.

Canals

Pakistan is irrigated by five rivers which are Ravi, Satluj, Jhelum, Chenab and Indus. From these rivers canals have been dug. These are very suitable canals for two points of view. Firstly, these rivers come back from ice covered mountains and flow throughout the year. Secondly, they have the same slope.

Wells

Rainwater which goes down in our land is collected in the rocks below. In this way a large reserve of water is formed down in the earth. Wells are made to use this water for irrigation. In Punjab a large number of wells have been dug, especially in Tehsil Shakarghar (District Narowal), Gujrat, Lahore and Dera Ghazi Khan Districts. Adequate Irrigation is done by wells. In the valley of Peshawar also irrigation is done by wells. Due to enough rainfall water is not low therefore wells are easily dug.

Tube Wells

In the villages where the facility of electricity is available water is drawn out by electric pumps. In this way more water is obtained from wells. So we get more benefits by tube wells.

Dams/Ponds

At many places water collected in ponds. Rain water is collected in them and is used in the hours of need. In the same way in mountain areas, small dams are made to stop water in small canals. Then small canals are dug to bring this water in the fields. These dams are made in less high areas. At some distance from Islamabad, Rawal Dam is made in the same way. By making many such dams in Punjab in the districts of Attock, Rajanpur and Dera Ghazi Khan the deficiency of water has been removed. Similar types of other dams are in provinces of Frontier and Balochistan.

Karez

In Pakistan Balochistan is more hot and dry. There is little rainfall small canals become dry in summer due to intencse heat. For irrigation underground houses are made to save water from being absorbed and evaporated. Water is drawn out with the help of Persian wheels and brought to fields.

Importance of Irragation

Irrigation means the artificial way of watering the crops. Irrigation is very important for Pakistan.We have little rainfall therefore we get the help of irrigation in preparing our crops. The progress of our country depends upon the means of irrigation and their progress. All parts except northern mountains depends upon irrigation. 67% of our land is irrigated due to little rainfall. The most important means of our irrigation is our system of canals. Our canals irrigate 70% of our lands while 14% is left for tube-wells, Persian wheels Karez and ponds

 

 

 

 

Important Canals of Pakistan

Important Canals of Pakistan

River Indus, Jhelum and Chenab are the math sources of water for Pakistan. These rivers have maximum quantity of water during summer but minimum during winter season 84% of the total water flows in these rivers in summer.

The Canals of River Ravi

Upper Ban Doab and lower Ban Doab are two important canals of river Ravi. These canals are very important for the production of summer crops. The upper Bari Doab is and old canal which was constructed in 1868.

The Canals of River Chenab

The upper Chenab and lower Chenab irragate the area of Rachna Doab. The haveli system of canals is also located in this Doab that comes out from Trimmu Head Works.

The Canals of River Jhelum

Chaj Doab has two important canals i.e. upper Jhelum and lower Jhelum. These canals irrigate a large part of the Triple Canal Project and have increased agricultural production. These two canals along with lower Ban Doab link the three rivers i.e. Jhelum Chenab and Ravi.

The Canals of River Sutlej

There are three Head Works on river Sutlej i.e. Feroze-Wala, Sulaimanki and Islam, whereas fourth is on the Puhjnad. These canals irrigate the area of Nili Bar and Bahawalpur.

The Canals of River Indus

The canals from Jinnah Barrage near Kalabagh irrigate the desert area of Thar for agricultural purpose. Districts of D.G. Khan and D.I. Khan are irrigated by a link canal from Chashma barrage, Taunsa barrage and Guddu barrage also have canals which irrigate vast areas. Following are imporatant canals from river Indus for NWFP.
1. The Canal of River Swat.
2. The Canal from Swat River Irrigates.
3. The Peshawar area.
4. The Warsak Project.
A project in the north west of Peshawar at Warsak is important for the local requirments of the region.

 

 

 

Important Power Resources

Power Resources

  1. Hydroelectricity
    2. Thermal Electricity
    3. Solar Energy
    4. Atomic Energy

Hydro Electricity

Nature has provided suitable environment in Pakistan. To produce hydroelectricity environment is better for it. The northern and north western area of Pakistan are suitable for building of dams. We can produce hydroelectricity to create steep slopes in rivers and canals.

Best Example of Hydroelectricity

The best example is the Ghazi Barotha project in river Indus.

To Produce Hydroelectricity

Both public and private sectors have planned to increase the production of hydroelectricity in Pakistan.

Hydroelectricity Production

Pakistan’s total hydroelectricity production is 4963 Megawatt.Pakistan has the capacity of production of 30000 MW from its river Indus, Helium and Chenab.

Important Hydroelectricity Stations

There are three imporatant hydroelectricity stations working in Pakistan.

Tarbela Dam

This dam is situated on Indus River.

Production of Hydroelectricity

The Tarbela dam produces 70% of the total hydroelectricity production of Pakistan. Its installed generation capacity is 3478 MW.

Construction of Dam

The Tarbela Dam was constructed in 1976 and its cost was about Rs.18 billions. This dam is about 9000 feet long. The Tarbela is one of the biggest dams of the world.

Mangla Dam

This dam is located on Jhelum River.

Production of Hydroelectricity

This dam installed generation capacity of power is 1000 MW which is 20% of total hydroelectricity of the country.

Construction of Mangla Dam

This dam was constructed and completed in 1967 the height of this dam is 110 meters. This dam is made of concrete. This is second biggest dam in Pakistan.

Thermal Electricity

The Thermal power stations are generating electricity by gas, oil and coal in Pakistan.

Production of Thermal

The 49.8% of the total electricity is produced by the thermal power. The thermal power production is 4921 MW in Pakistan.

Power Stations

There are 13 thermal power stations working in Pakistan. The biggest station is working in Karachi this station generates 1756 MW. The second biggest station is working in Multan. It generates 260 MW.

Important Thermal Stations

Other important thermal plants are in Faisalabad, Kotri, Pasni, Guddu, Jamshoro, Muzaffargarh, Sukkur and Larkana etc.

Future Plans

A large number of projects have been planned to meet future energy requirments of Pakistan. This project is working rapidly. If this project work better than our country will make progress by leaps and bounds.

Solar Energy

The energy that we get from sun is called solar energy. The climate of Pakistan is extremely hot and dry. Pakistan is situated near the Tropic of cancer so the sun rays are vertical most of the year. These days are hot. That’s why the season of summer is longer than winter in Pakistan. The sun rises most time. We can use this energy to the maximum in life. This is the cheapest source of energy.

Use of Solar Energy

In Pakistan we have abundance of this energy but the important thing is the maximum use of it. This energy is used to operate small machines and motor in future the solar energy will become the biggest source of energy of the world because other sources of energy are costly and difficult to exploit.

Atomic Energy

Advance Sources

Atomic energy is the advance source of this world. Altough this source of energy is very sophisticated and multi disciplinary system. As the rapid growth of population sources are also increasing at the same rate. That’s why it is an important source of energy in developing coutries.

Pakistan is an Atomic Power

By the grace of Allah Pakistan has become a great Atomic Power. Pakistan has operated Atomic blasts in Chagi in Balochistan on 28 May 1998. Pakistan had to face many difficulties to achieve progress in the atomic program.

Nuclear Power Technology

Nuclear Power technology was introduced in Pakistan in 1971 when a plant of 136 MW capacity namely Karachi. Nuclear power plant (KANUPP) was installed. This plant has been operating safely for more than 31 years. In other important Cheshma nuclear power project is also working with the help of China. This has been connected to the national grid on June 13 2000. It has a gross capacity of 325 MW and is located near Cheshma Barrage on left bank of river Indus.

 

 

 

 

Human Resources

Natural Resources

The economic development of a country totally depends upon natural resources. The exploitation of natural resources and their usefulness depends upon the efforts of human beings.

Population of Pakistan

The population of Pakistan has gone beyond 150 millions which has made Pakistan seven biggest country in the world. To meet the needs of growing population we have to increase our agricultural production.

Self Sufficient

By the grace of Allah our economy is progressing to gain self sufficiency. Moreover some excess production of grains is exported to earn foreign exchange.Education is required to be developed on modern, lines. Modern techniques and research can accelerate the progress of agriculture and industry.

OverCome to Over-Crowed Population

The alarming situation is the rate of growth of population which is more than that of the production of natural resources. This thing effects the economic growth of the country. Through accelerated exploitation of existing energy resources, we can promote economy of the country

 

 

 

 

Short Questions Answers

Q.1 Write down the kinds of Pakistan Soils?

Ans.
A. Residual Soils: They are formed at the sites of origin when rocks and hills breaks. It is mostly unfit for cultivation.
B. Transported Soils; They are carried by various agents eg. Speedy water of streams, rivers and strong winds.

Q.2 Write down the soils of North Western Mountains Regions?

Ans.
A. The colour is dark brown
B. It is capable for vegetation
C. They are found in Swat, Chitral and Gilgit.

Q.3 Write down the soil of Upper Indus Plain?

Ans.
A. The colour is blackish.
B. It has high constants of calcium carbonate and less organic matter.
C. They are found in Attock, Lahore, Multan etc.

Q.4 Write down the soil of Indus Delta?

Ans.
A. The colour is black.
B. The soil contains clay, under flood water condition saline loamy.
C. The soil is located in Indus Delta.

Q.5 Write down the soil of lower Indus Basin?

Ans.
A. It has multiple colours.
B. It has lime stone, silt and clay.
C. It is found in North West of River Indus and South Eastern area of river Indus.

Q.6 Write down the agriculture forests?

Ans.
A. Forests of North East.
B. Shrub Forests.
C. Balochistan hills forests.
D. The Tidal forests.

Q.7 Write the cool producing area in Pakistan?

Ans.
A. PUNJAB: Pidh, Makarwal and Arokhat chala are imporatant cool producing recognised.
B. SINDH: Jhampir, Tharparkar are important cool producing organs.
C. NWFP: Koirata is an important cool producing regions.
D. Balochistan: Hornic and Ziarat are important cool producing region.

Q.8 Write the Gypsum producing areas of Pakistan?

Ans.
A. Punjab: Mianwali and Jhelum.
B. Balochistan: Quetta and Sibbi.
C. N.W.F.P: Kohat.
D. Sindh: Dadoo.

Q.9 Write the four food crops of Pakistan?

Ans.
A. Wheat
B. Rice
C. Maize
D. Pulses

Q.10 Write the cash crop of Pakistan?

Ans.
A. Cotton
B. Sugar Cane
C. Tobacco

Q.11 Write down any four agricultural problems of Pakistan?

Ans.
A. UN economic land holding
B. Scarcity of water
C. Soil Erosion
D. Lack of means of Transportation

Q.12 Write down four step which government have taken for the development of agriculture?

Ans.
A. Establishment of Model forms
B. Increase irrigation facilities
C. Control over water logging and salinity
D. Use of communication media

Q.13 Write down the means of irrigation in Pakistan?

Ans.
A. Wells
B. Tube Wells
C. Canals
D. Kareez

Q.14 Write down canal system of upper Indus valley?

Ans.
A. The upper and the lower Jhelum Canals.
B. The upper and the lower Chenab Canals.
C. Thal Canal.
D. Warsak Dam Canal.

Q.15 Write down the canal system of lower Indus Valley?

Ans.
A. Guddu Barrage Canal.
B. Sukkur Barrage Canal.
C. Kotri Barrage Canal.

Q.16 Write down the multipurpose dam in Pakistan?

Ans.
A. Mangla Dam
B. Tarbella Dam
C. Kala Bagh Dam

Q.17 Write down the sources of energy in Pakistan?

  1. Coal
    B. Gas
    C. Petroleum
    D. Water (Hydroelectricity)

Q.18 Write down the names of four aritficial forest of Pakistan?

Ans.
A. Jhelum
B. Mianwali
C. Dera Ghazi Khan
D. Changa Manga

 

 

 

 

Fill in the Blanks

  1. Allah has created plants, trees, minerals and water for human beings as well as animals. They are called naturalresources.

    2. The upper layer of the earth which is composed of different thin rock particles is helpful in the growthof vegetation and plants that is called soil.

    3. Solid particles air and water are the basic components of soil.

    4. Those materials which are transported from one place to another by rivers and deposited at other places are called Alluvium soil.

    5. Wind transports the material from one place to another which is deposited over the surface that is called Aeolian soil.

    6. The Indus plain is made with the deposition of Alluvium by the Indus River and its tributes.

    7. Bangar soils cover a vast area of the Indus Plain.

    8. Indus Delta soils extend from Hyderabad to the South Coastal area.

    9. Rice is cultivated in the major part of Indus Delta soils.

    10. 1/3 of the total energy requirements of Pakistan are fulfilled by forests.

    11. It is important for balanced economy of a country to have forests on about 25% of area.

    12. There are evergreen forests in northern and north-western parts of Pakistan.

    13. Northern and north-western parts of Pakistan receive more rainfall due to evergreen forests.

    14. Hardwood for the making of furniture is available from evergreen forests.

    15. The dry hill forests are found at altitude of about 900 to 3000 meters in Quetta and kalat division of Balochistan.

    16. Mangrove forests are found along the coastline from Karachi to Kutch.

    17. Forests provide wood as fuel in place of coal.

    18. Rivers carry huge amount of sand and silt that fill our dams and lakes.

    19. Forests make 3.6% of the total area of Pakistan.

    20. The mineral development corporation was established in 1975.

    21. Iron ore, Chromites and Copper are the Metallic Minerals.

    22. Rock Salt, Limestone, Gypsum, Marble and Sulphure are the Non-Metallicmarbles.

    23. China Clay and Fire Clay are the Non-Metallic marbles.

    24. Gemstone is a Non-Metallic marbles.

    25. Coal Natural Gas and Crude Oil are the Power Resources minerals.

    26. The biggest mine of coal is Salt Range in Punjab.

    27. The oil obtained from Attock, Jhelum and Chakwal districts is refined in Morgah Refinery near
    Rawalpindi.

    28. The reservoirs of natural gas are in Sui, Uch, Zin, Kherpur, Muzrani, Hindi, Kundkot, Sarung, Dhodak, Peerkoh and Dhullian.

    29. Pakistan set up a Steel Mill in Karachi with the cooperation of Russia.

    30. The biggest reservoir of iron is found in Kala Bagh.

    31. Chromite is a white metal which is used to make iron.

    32. The biggest mine of rock salt is found at Khewra.

    33. Limestone is very useful raw material for cement industry.

    34. Gypsum is a bright stone of white colour.

    35. In Khyber Agency at Mullah Gori, the best kind of Marble is found.

    36. Angora (District Swat) and Tharparkar (Sindh) are known for China Clays.

    37. Fire Clay is used in kilns of bricks.

    38. 25% area of total area of Pakistan is cultivated.

    39. Wheat, Sugarcane, maize and rice are major food crops.

    40. 55% of peoples are working in the field of Agriculture.

    41. 70% cultivated area of the country is under irrigation system.

    42. The artificial way of watering the crops is called Irrigation.

    43. Pakistan is irrigated by five rivers which are Rave, Stale, Helium, China and Indus.

    44. Karez system of irrigation is used in Balochistan.

    45. River Indus, Jhelum and Chenab are the main sources of water for Pakistan.

    46. Upper Ban Doab and Lower Ban Doab are two important canals of river Ravi.

    47. The upper Chenab and lower Chenab irrigate the area of Rachna Doab.

    48. Upper Jhelum and lower Jhelum irrigates the area of Chaj Doab.

    49. The Peshawar area is irrigated by the canal from Swat River.

    50. Hydroelectricity and thermal electricity are important Power Resources.

    51. The Ghazi Barotha project in river Indus is used for Hydroelectricity.

    52. This Tarbela Dam dam is situated on Indus River.

    53. The Tarbela is one of the biggest Dams of the world.

    54. The Mangla Dam is located on Jhelum River.

    55. Pakistan has operated Atomic Blasts in Chagi in Balochistan on 28 May 1998

 

 

Industrial Progress of Pakistan

Industry

Industry is such a place where the enterpreneur and labour through the machines and tools convert the shape of capital raw material and natural resources in such way that their utility may increase to fulfill the needs of the people to a large extent and may fetch maximum price in the market.

Factors of Industrial Progress

In Pakistan the ratio of industrial progress was 7.6% during the year 2000-2002 which is much lower in the world. Following are the factors of Industrial progress.

(I) Increase National Income

Industrial progress increases the national income.

(II) Raising Living Standard

Raises the living standard of the people.

(III) Economic Stability

Creates economic Stability.

(IV) Balance of Payment

Improved the balance of payments of the country.

(V) Increases Exports

Promotes exports and earns foreign exchange.

(VI) Progress of other Sectors

Promotes the progress of other sectors.

(VII) Employment Opportunities of Employment

Provides opportunities of employment.

(VIII) Specializations

Encourages specialization in the country.

(IX) Progress of Agriculture

Help in the progress of agriculture.

(X) Provides New Things

Provides new thing to the people

 

 

Backwardness of Industry in Pakistan

Causes of Backwardness of Industry in Pakistan

Following are the causes of the lack of industrial progress in Pakistan.

(I) Industrial Policies of Different Governments

When new government takes over it disposes of all policies of previous government. Due to this our country faces great problems and causes lack of progress.

(II) Decrease in the Capital

Every industry wants a large number of capitals but due to lack of capital industry will not progress.

(III) Limited Markets

Limited markets are also the cause of lack of industrial progress.

(IV) Decreases in the Productive Capabilities of the Labour

When labour will works hard then any industry makes progress and production will also improve and increase. If labour will not work then industry will deteriorate.

(V) Lack of Means of Transportation and Communication

Communication plays an important and vital role in industry’s progress. If communication system is in disorder then our product is out of order. That’s why lack of communication and transportation also causes the industry failure.

(VI) Expensive Means

Expensive means of transportation and communication.

(VII) Lack of Technical Knowledge

If workers are not technical minded then our industry will not progress. Lack of our technical workers is the downfall of our industries.

(VIII) Shortage of Entrepreneurs

Because of shortage of entrepreneurs industry will not progress.

(IX) Lack of Education

Lack of political coordination and political stability is the cause of industry’s failure.

(X) Non-Availibility of Electricity

Non-Availibility of Electricity in many regions.

(XI) Common Load Shedding

Electricity plays an important role in Pakistan’s progress. Pakistan is not self sufficient in electricity that’s why common load shedding also causes failure in industry’s progress.

(XII) Economic Restrictions Imposed by Other Countries

An economic restriction imposed by other countries also causes failure of industry’s progress.

(XIII) Lack of Effective Exploration of the World Market

Lack of effective exploration of the world market also causes failure of industry’s progress

 

 

Small Scale Industry and Problems of Small Scale Industry

Small Scale Industry

Small scale industry has always been praised in different ways in various countries. In Pakistan this industry is that one which after employing 2 to 9 workers produces different goods for the market on small scale. Following are the main small scale industries.
Poultry farms, dairy farm, honey making industry, carpets, pots, sports goods, fans and electric motors etc.

Problems of Small Scale Industry

(I) Decreases in the Productive Capabilities of the Labour  

Small scale industrialists have less capital. That’s why they cannot expand their bussiness due to lack of capital.

(II) Lack of Technical Skills  

Workers are uneducated and unskilled. Due to non-availibility of new technology it is very difficult for the semi skilled and illiterate workers to maintain the standard of their products. So they cannot establish large scale industry because of lack of technical skills.

(III) Lack of Cooperation

Due to lack of cooperation small scale industry faces different difficulties. The difficulty to find the profitable markets and competition with the large scale industries which produces better goods and the small industry has to face losses.

(IV) Outdated Means of Production

The cause of problems in small scale industry is that they use mainly old and outdated means of production.

(V) Step Motherly Treatment

The Step Motherly Treatment of the government departments creates lot of problems. Small industry finds it difficult to get the good raw material. It cannot train their workers and pay them good wages. They work without the benefits of social security

 

 

Short Notes

Heavy Industry

Heavy industry is that industry which not only produces goods on large scale but also produces machines and raw material for other industries e.g. Pakistan Steel Mill and Shipyard in Karachi.

Example of Heavy Duty Industry

There are 11 types of Industries working in Pakistan.

(1) The petroleum products Industry.
(2) Automobile Industry.
(3) Cement and Chemical fertlizers Industry.
(4) Ghee and Cooking oil Industry.
(5) Tobacco and Cigarette Industry.
(6) Textile Industry.
(7) Leather goods Industry.
(8) Paper products Industry.
(9) Cosmetics and toilet Chemical Industry.
(10) Plastic goods Industry.
(11) Sugar Industry.

Public Sector Industry

From 1970 the government is producing heavy industrial goods. But some heavy industries have been sold to the private sector. At this time cooperation and 40 industrial units are in public sector to 2001 sector provided 24886 jobs to the people. Pakistan Steel Mill is the biggest industry in public sector which produces basic raw material for the industry.

Defence Industry

Defence industry plays an important role in safety of our country. In Wah Aid Texila, defence industries are preparing small and large weapons. Texila defence industry was set up with the help of China, Kahuta Laboratories and promoting aur nuclear program. At Chashma there are similar laboratories which are fulfilling the requirements of our defence. Through the Fauji Foundation some other industries have been setup in which retired army personnel are engaged to produce different goods including army uniforms.

 

 

 

Important Major Industries of Pakistan

The Important Major Industries of Pakistan

There are the following important industries of Pakistan.

Cotton Textile Industry

 

After the freedom of Pakistan the maximum progress was made by the industry of cotton cloth Pakistan got its share of three industries. Cotton cloth was mostly imported. Government gave much importance to this industry and encouraged. At that time 850 small and large industries were working. In 1975 the produce of cloth was 70 crore yarns. Now our country is independent in some types of cloth yards but cotton cloth is also being exported. Japan and Hong Kong are the biggest importers of our cloth. Now the import of this industry is finished. Its industries are mostly in Faisalabad, Lahore and Karachi. Faisalabad is called the Manchester of Pakistan. Two industries Bolan Textile and Lusbella are being established by the cooperation of Iran. It will cost Rs. 67 Crores. 

Woollen Textile Industry

There are no industry of woollen cloth in Pakistan before partition. One difficulty is that fine woollen thread has to be imported. Country wool is not so good that it can be used in the manufacturing of good quality cloth. It is mostly used in carpet making high quality woollen cloth blanket and woollen thread in Pakistan is made in Bannu, Karachi, Lawrencepur, Hernai Multan, Noshera and Quaidabad.

Cement Industry

There was only industry of cement when Pakistan came in to being. Now many industries are working in Daud Khel, Dandkot, Hyderabad, Wah, Rohrim Jhelum, Hazara and Karachi. Calcium Carbonate, Gypsum and Special clay which is used in its manufacturing is sufficient for Pakistan. A factory is being made in Spuntungy in Balochistan with the cooperation of Iran. Second factory is under construction at Gudai in Lasbella. Factories of cement are also working in Gharibwal, Farooqui, Noshera, Kohar and Nooriabad.

Sugar Industry

Sugar factories are working in Mardan, Faisalabad, Joharabad, Bunny, Pattoki, Charsada, Larkana, Chorister, Tando Muhammad Khan, Bahawalpur, Jhung, Layyah, Darya Khan and Gujrat. Five factories in Punjab and three in Province of Sindh are being constructed. One factory is also being made in Frontier.

Fertilizer Industry

There was no fertilizer factory in Pakistan when it came into being but now several factories are working Daud Khel, Multan and Faisalabad.

Leather Industry

Animal skins are the important crude material of Pakistan. Many big factories are working in Lahor, Karachi and Hyderabad. Pakistan earns enough foreign exchange by exporting new leather and leather good. Now there are eigthy factories working in Pakistan which are cleaning leather.

Paper Industry

Factories of paper making have been set up in Lahore, Noshera, Charsadda and Gharo. For newspapers need a factory is working in Hyderabad and a factory has also been set up in Shakarghar.

Card Board Industry

The needs of cardboard are also met through import. Now a factory in Noshera produces good quality of cardboard. A factory at Rahwali in Gujranwala is preparing cardboard.

Rubber Industry

The factories preparing rubber goods are working in Lahore, Sialkot and Karachi where tires and tubes of cycles. Motor cycles, scooter and heavy vehicles shoes toes, rubber seats, mats and other thins are being prepared.

Electric Goods Industry

Pakistan has progressed much in electric industry. The factories of wire making and radio circuits are progressing T.V. radio, refrigerator and air-conditioners are also being manufactured. These factories are in Lahore, Karachi, Gujrat and Gujranwala.

Iron Industry

There are some factories in Karachi and Lahore which are making pig iron from crude iron. The factory of pig iron would have been formed long ago but now it is too late. Now steel mill in Karachi is working with the cooperation of Russia.

Machine Industry

A factory has been set up at Texilla with cooperation of China which prepares parts of engines, railway wagons, wheels and axles, road building machines etc.

Ship Industry

Karachi Shipyard is working in karachi which is preparing small size ships. Now it is also making big ships. A factory of ship making is also being established in Bin Qasim.

Oil Refining Industry

These industries are working Rawalpindi, Multan and Karachi.

Industry of Banaspati Ghee

In Pakistan the industry of banaspati ghee has progressed much but its production is less the need of our country. More factories are being set up. There was no ghee factory in Balochistan at the time of partition. But now two factories are working at Quetta and Temple Dera. In 1973 this industry was nationlized. Government is establishing more factories according to our needs. Two factories are located in Northern areas and one is being set up on tribal areas. Now there are 25 ghee factories in Pakistan.

Chemical Industries

In Pakistan the industries of soda ash, colour, caustic soda, sulphuric acid, insecticides and pharmacy medicines have done much progress.

Armament Industry

We are preparing Rifles, Machine Guns, Mortars and other small weapons. Pakistan is self dependent in these arms and is also exporting to other Muslim countries. At Kamra (Attock) factories are making airplanes and doing the work of their repair. Here facilities are available for repining Mirage and F-16 are also for their complete assembling. A small airplane is made at Kara to train the new pilots. Its name is Mushaak.

Miscellaneous Industries

Many other industries have also progressed much. Among them, industries of flour grinding, cigarette making, match sticks, glass making and cycle making are important.

 

 

 

Means of Transportation and Communication

Introduction

Means of transportation and communication means the source by which we can go from one place to another and also carry our goods. These are called means of transportation. Means of transportation and communication are very important for the economic progress of any country. These means included, Rail, Roads and water.

Advantages of Means of Transportation and Communication

Following are its advantages:

  1. Local and Foreign Trade

These means of transportation are very fruitful in bringing raw material to factories and then carrying useful materials to the markets. It broadens the sphere of the local and foreign trade and import/export of materials becomes easy.

  1. Transporations between Cities/Villages

Transport of goods, service and labour in between the cities and villages is important. It is necessary for social progress as well. If transportation will be rapid, cheap and easy we will feel comfort bringing raw materials and useful goods from one place to another.

  1. Promotion of Geographical Skills

The superiority of developed countries is due to the means of transportation. Their abundance and bettermet is necessary, for our country’s progress, for this purpose opening of new land and sea routes is necessary being a geographical skill.

  1. Promote Agriculture

For agricultural progress good roads are necessary. If these are efficient, transportation of fertilizers, oil machinery and crops are easy to carry from one place to another. Every village should be linked to city by a good road.

  1. Speed of Progress

Means of transportation and communication strongly link one city and other. They maintain the speed of progress in different parts of the country.

  1. Suitable Prices

By good means of transport, it is very easy to carry things from one place to another. All the people remain familiar with the rates of market and helps in keeping the prices stationary.

  1. Increase in the Income

Transportation has much importance in the stability and economic progress of a country. good means of transportation and communication helps in increasing the income of the people and their standard of living.

  1. Increase in the Revenue

Good means of transportation and communication increase the revenue of the government.

  1. Progress in Tourism

Tourism will progress by better means of Transport. Tourists can also enjoy when they will get the facility of transport. Tourists can easily go from one place to another. Good means of transportation and communication help in uniting the different regions of the country and promote brotherhood.

  1. Social Welfare

These means affect the social welfare of a country very much. All the people get benefit from these means for the progress of the society. These means bring the people close and they understand each other. Due to these means civilization becomes vast and unity is established. They also hep in the bettermet of social welfare.

11.Efficiency of Defence

It is very important for armed forces. By these means our soldiers and their armaments like vehicles, trucks, tanks are carried from one place to another for this purpose the standard of transportation should be very high. Good means of transportation ensure the efficiency of the defence. So the defence of the country becomes more reliable.

  1. Increase Political Awarness in the Country

Means of transportation and communication will be helpful in political affairs. It also increases political awareness of people in the country.

  1. Reforms

In the beginning provincial and central governments took various steps to remove the difficulties in transportation. Now by the efforts of public and government we have got control on our difficulties. New roads have been made and old roads have been repaired. New railway trancks have been laid. In the same way the sea and air ways have also done much progress. Telegram, telephone; radio and televison systems range have been made vast.

 

 

 

Kinds of Land Transport and Communication

Various Means of Communication

The means of communication are mail, telegraph, telex, telephone, television, newspaper, magazines, radio, internet, e-mail and e-commerce, etc. People come closer to one another through all these means. They help the businessmen to make deals quickly, and keep them in touch with price fluctuations. They also help to send documents to distant places in no time.

Types of Communication

There are two types of land communication:
1. Railway
2. Roads

  1. Railways

Pakistan railway is the most important of our transportation system but it is not fully being used.
Roads bear the maximum burden. It is called P.R. In the beginning railway engines were operated by coal. Now diesel engines have been raplaced by electric engines. The first railway track was laid between Karachi and Kotri in 1861. At some places double liens are arranged and new railway lines are being laid. Railway has 600 locomotive railway engines and 23459 good wagons.

Steps towards Improvement of Pakistan Railway

More facilities are being provided to the passengers. Modern signal system has been adopted. Mughalpura workshop, Lahore and Islamabad Wagon shop are repairing engines and tail compartments improve the system of railway. It is very important that Pakistan Railways should improve the means of transportation of goods to enhace the industrial and economic progress.

Problems of Pakistan Railways

There is mismanagement of railways which has created following problems:

Old and Rusty Machinery

Most of the machinery has become old and rusty. It has not been repaired or replaced so far.

Slow Speed of Goods Trains

The speed of goods train is slow so people send their goods by roads. Thus railway suffers financial loss.

Lack of New Powerful Engines

Pakistan, Railway suffers from shortage of new powerful engines. Passenger and Express trains are usually pulled by these engines, which go out of order commonly thus causing delay of goods and passenger trains.

Old Railway Tracks

Old and rusty railway tracks, sleepers and wagons, cause increasing railway accidents.

Mismanagement and Inefficiency

Mismanagement, over staffing and inefficiency of the workers are the main reasons, which cause financial losses to Pakistan Railway. The management of Pakistan Railway is not competent.

Lack of Accountability System

There is no proper system of accountablity in railways department.

  1. Roads

Roads are very important for our trade. Different cities have been linked by roads and much of our production and raw material is carried from one place to another through roads. The majority of our population travels by road. Moreover agricultural goods and other production of our articles are carried to different parts of the country by roads.

Important Roads of Pakistan

Only one highway connects the north and the south of the country, i.e. Karachi, Hyderabad, Multan, Sahiwal, Lahore, Gujranwala, Rawalpindi and Peshawar. This national highway is a mean of transportation of 56% of goods and the people of the country from one place to another.

Shahrah-e-Resham

It was constructed in the north of the country with the help of China passes through the highest mountain of the world. Shahrah-e-Resham links Pakistan and China via Abbottabad, Rawalpindi and Islamabad.

Length of Roads in Pakistan

There are many long roads in the country which are of both good condition and quality. The length of roads in Pakistan is 251661km which are 148877 km of good quality and 102784km of low quality.

Motorway

Need for Motorway

There was great burden on the National Highway No. 5. Due to traffic burden its performance does not meet the requirements. This rush could not be reduced even by making the National Highway two ways. Tranportation of goods from one place to another as well as travelling takes lot of time. It has necessitated a new motorway in country.

Gawadar Motorway

A part from this, Gawadar Motorway is also being constructed which is 865km long.

Karachi-Hub Kakar Motorway

Karachi-Hub Kakar Motorway is 341 km long and it was opened for traffic in 1998. In Pakistan the project of motorway is divided into 3 parts, first part comprises six roads called Islamabad Lahore Motorway and it is 335 km long. Second part that connects Islamabad and Peshawar is 154 km long and the third part that connects Multan to Shikarpur is 317 km long.

Objective of the Construction of Motorway

  1. To Reduce Burden of Traffic

Motorway reduces the heavy burden of traffic on the National Highway of Pakistan.

  1. To Make Transportation Speedier

It makes the transportation speedier.

  1. Opportunities for World Trade

It provides new opportunities to the people living around the motorway to earn income as the motorway connects them with the world trade.

  1. Harmony Among People

It is playing a vital role for provision of more opportunities for the purpose of harmony among the different parts of the country.

  1. Establishment of Industry

Int increases chances of establishment of industrial empire in different parts of the country.

  1. Increase in Income

It enchances the national and per capital income of the country.

Means of Air Transport

Today airways are of great importance. It does not only save time but also carried goods to far off and unapproachable places. The luggage of different types can also be carried from one place to another by air

 

 

 

 

E-Commerce

Introduction

It means business through electronic media. This is world of computer technology. It is now being used in the industry, commerce and homes. Now one car deal with the others with the help of a computer. the world has become a global village.

Advantages of E-Commerce

E-Commerce is the new method of doing business in the world. Different industries advertise their products on the internet with their prices. Whereas every person sitting at home or in office can see the pictures and prices, of the commodities of those industries through internet. One can directly take information from the company. by E-Commerce, we can sell anything at suitable prices, and can earn profit. This is called E-Commerce business.

By Using Credit Cards

Money can be transferred through credit cards. Those people who have credit card can purchase everything from factories and get delivery through courier within few days.

 

 

 

Industrial Progress is Possible in Pakistan

Industrial Progress

Pakistan is an under-developed country there prevails poverty among the people. Drought, environmental pollution, low income, lawlessness, and illness are the main causes for backwardness in agriculture and industry. Hence the country cannot progress. Our progress mostly depends upon agriculture and industrial sector. Similarly imports, exports and means of transportation are the basis of the progress of a country. Either it is private sector or the public sectors, both are very important. E-Commerce can play a vital role in the development of the economy in such a way that living standard of present generation may increase.

Pakistan industrial progress depends upon the following factors:

1. Agriculture
2. Means of transportation and communications.
3. Best utilization of natural resources.
4. Financial resources
5. Increase of the capability of human productivity resources.
6. Increase of the supply of goods to the international market.
7. Promotion of banking.
8. Emphasis on the technology.
9. Expansion of the markets.
10. Increase in the income of the people so that they may increase their consumption and savings.

 

 

 

Short Question and Answers

 

Q.1 Write down four causes of industrial backwardness of Pakistan?

Ans.
1. Lock of power resources
2. Political instablity
3. Lock of technical education and training
4. Shortage of capital

Q.2 Write down the features of cottage industries?

Ans.
1. They do not neend big long term loans.
2. No huge capital required.
3. Management is easy.
4. No large frame work is required.

Q.3 Name some important small scale industries of Pakistan?

Ans.
1. Sports goods industries
2. Surgical instrument industry
3. Carpet industry
4. Leather industry

Q.4 Write down four important centres of cotton textile mills?

Ans.
1. Punjab Province : Faisalabad, Multan and Lahore.
2. Sindh Province: Karachi, Hyderabad and Gambit.
3. Balochistan Province: Quetta and Lasbela.
4. N.W.F.P: Peshawar and Swat.

Q.5 Write down any four major imports of Pakistan?

Ans.
1. Machines
2. Iron Ore
3. Petroleum
4. Edible Oil

Q.6 Write down any for major exports of Pakistan?

Ans.
1. Rice
2. Sports goods
3. Cotton Textiles
4. Surgical Instruments

Q.7 Write down means of any three railway routs of Pakistan.

Ans.
1. Peshawar to Karachi via Rawalpindi, Lahore and Rohri.
2. Rawalpindi to Faisalabad via Wazirabad.
3. Multan to Jacobabad via Dera Ghazi Khan

Q.8 Write down the names of three big highways?

Ans.
1. National Highway from Karachi to Torkham via Peshawar.
2. Karachi-Quetta Highway via Khuzdar.
3. Quetta-Peshawar Highway.

Q.9 What steps should be taken by the government for the industrial development?

Ans.
1. Peace should be prevailed.
2. The trade rules should be simplified.
3. Smuggling should be controlled.
4. The long term loans with easy installment should be given to the people

 

 

 

Fill in the Blanks

  1. Means of Transportationincludes railway, vehicles, buses, airplanes, ships, tankers and boats.

    2. In Pakistan the ratio of industrial progress was 7.6% during the year 2001-2002.

    3. Handicraft, wood work and iron work industries are some of the examples of Cottage Industry.

    4. Rugs embroidery and toys industries are some of the examples of CottageIndustry.

    5. Poultry farms, dairy farms and honey making industry are the main Small ScaleIndustries.

    6. Pakistan Steel Mills and Shipyard in Karachi are Heavy industries.

    7. Textile INdustry Leather and Leather goods industry are Heavy Industries.

    8. Pakistan Steel Mill is the biggest inudstry in Public Sector.

    9. Texila Defence industry was setup with the help of China.

    10. In 1952, government established the Department of Industrial Progress Corporation to encourage industries.

    11. In 1961, Pakistan Industrial Bank was established.

    12. In 1949, a department of Scientific and Industrial Research was established.

    13. In 1949, Industrial Finance Corporation was made.

    14. In 1953, a council of Industrial research was found.

    15. Two industries Bolan Textile and Lusbaila Textile are being established by the cooperation of Iran.

    16. Lawrencepure, Hernai, Noshera and Quaidabad are famous for Woollenthread.

    17. The factories preparing rubber goods are working in Lahore, Sialkot and Karachi.

    18. Karachi Shipyard is working in Karachi which is preparing small size ships.

    19. A factory of Ship making is also being established at Bin Qasim.

    20. There are 25 ghee factories in Pakistan.

    21. First ammunition factory was established at Wah in 1951.

    22. Railway and Roads are two types of Land Communication.

    23. The first railway track was laid between Karachi and Kotri in 1861.

    24. Other production of our articles are carried to different parts of the country by roads.

    25. National Highway connects the north and south of the country.

    26. Shahrah-e-Resham was constructed in the north of the country with the help of China.

    27. Shahrah-e-Resham links Pakistan and China via Abbottabad, Rawalpindi and Islamabad

 

 

 

 

 

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